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Fruits and Nuts for a Self Sufficient Farm

Perennial fruits and nuts that are appropriate for self-sufficiency in temperate climates must be the most disease resistant and well adapted to a broad range of soil and climate. The varieties recommended below, are selected for the best disease resistance in order to improve the chances of crop consistency. High nutrient levels and good flavor were also of primary importance in these variety selections.

Plant Propagation
American Grape Overview
American Grape Varieties
Grape Pruning and Training
Grape Diseases
Grape Management
European Cold Climate Grapes
Rose Hips
Other Fruits
Orchard Layout


Plant Propagation:

One of the best ways a farmer can save money is by learning to propagate your own clones. Most trees, vines, and bushes can be cloned using soft or hardwood cuttings. Be sure to use vertical growth for cuttings; horizontal stems will continue to grow horizontally.

Purdue - cutting propagaton
NC State - appropriate plants
USDA Forest Service
Bottom heated bed
Wounding compounds
Carbohydrate nitrogen balance

But some of the more stubborn specimens may require root cuttings.

Shipmast Black Locust root cutting
Paulownia root cutting
Aspen root cuttings
Root cuttings - chimera risk

The most difficult specimens may require stooling with etiolation and application of rooting hormone. (ash, beech, oak, walnut, blue spruce, chestnut, hazelnut, heartnut, pecan, scots pine).

Oregon State - stooling
North Dakota State - etiolation

Basal shoots, suckers, and even epicormic shoots can be encouraged by over pruning a tree. Once suckering starts, then it is safer to cut the main trunk since you know what the lowest point is that you can reduce it to in preparation for stooling. Pinching young sprouts early can also help prepare them for stooling.

 Rhizome cuttings 
 Stump cuttings 

Trees grown on their own roots have more vigor to resist drought, pests, and diseases organically. To stimulate fruiting buds, tie down branches. And to prevent excessive vegetative growth, you must avoid winter pruning by pruning in the late summer / early fall instead. Plants grown on their own roots still have their inherent susceptibilities, so grafting may be required to overcome certain soil diseases and pests. But, grafting is used mainly because it allows a nursery to reproduce clones quickly.

Own root for increased vigor / disease resistance

Air pruning roots may be the best way to encourage thick root growth. Tap roots normally wax and wane depending on soil conditions, so tap roots will recover to a reasonable degree:

EdibleAcres - unboxing tree starts

General tree training.
Univ Cal - training trees


American Grape Overview:

(Vitis labrusca, riparia, rupestris, aestivalis, lincecumii, and rotundifolia): (Point of origin: the Americas) Nutrition: Grapes contain many antioxidants: resveratrol, phenolics, flavinoids, anthocyanins, and quercitin are also anti-inflammatory. Catechins are beneficial to the brain. The leaves are rich in pterostilbene. Therapeutic potential of resveratrol Resveratrol across grape varieties Resveratrol in riparia and vinifera Selection Criteria: European grapes tend to have the best flavor (Vitis vinifera), but are more vulnerable to disease. It is exceptionally difficult to grow them organically. American grapes tend to have the best disease resistance. Hybrids come close to providing the best of both worlds. Many of them have good disease resistance and improved flavor. Unfortunately, wine made from them does not usually age well. They are more appropriate for young wine, table, juice, jelly, raison, etc. There are some remaining fairly disease resistant hybrid varieties not shown here, but they must be grown in a dry environment and/or sprayed intensively. (Such as Brianna, St. Croix, Sabrevois, Frontenac, Alwood, Sunbelt, Concord, Glenora, King of the North, Valiant, Worden, Buffalo, Sheridan, Petite Amie, Marachal Foch, etc.) Some of the few hybrid varieties that can be grown organically with little or no spraying are listed below. ***************************************************

American Grape Varieties:

******* High rainfall grapes: Beta (Vitis labrusca X V. riparia X V. vinifera) - zone 4 blue slipskin, young wine small, tart, acidic very strong disease resistance Ripens early season. Drooping growth habit. Source: St. Lawrence Oberlin Noir (Vitis riparia X V. vinifera) - zone 5 blue, black, tannic flavor, young wine very strong disease resistance. Ripens mid season. Upright growth habit. Source: Double A Vineyards Medium rainfall grapes: Marquette (Vitis vinifera X V. riparia X V. labrusca) - zone 3 deep red hybrid young wine grape, acidic has a low susceptibility to most grape diseases. Early bud break. Ripens early season. Distant relation to Pinot Noir. Versatile growth habit. Source: Double A Vineyards Anthracnose Petite Pearl (Vitis vinifera X V. riparia) - zone 4 deep red hybrid young wine grape disease resistance late budbreak Ripens late. Low acid Drooping growth habit. Crimson Pearl and Verona are are also good. Source: Bevens Creek, Info: Breeding Louise Swenson (Vitis vinifera X V. riparia X V. labrusca) - zone 4 white young wine grape, muscat parentage has a low susceptibility to most grape diseases. Late bloom, not drought tolerant Ripens early. Drooping growth habit. Source: Double A Vineyards Skujinsh (Vitis vinifera X V. amurensis X V. riparia X V. labrusca) - zone 4 white young wine grape, muscat parentage has a low susceptibility to most grape diseases. Upright growth habit. Ripens early. Source: Double A Vineyards Bluebell (Vitis labrusca X V. vinifera) - zone 4 blue concord type, moderate flavor, young wine. has a low susceptibility to most grape diseases. Ripens early. Drooping growth habit. Source: St. Lawrence Veeblanc (V. vinifera X V. rupestris X V. lincecumii X V. Labrusca ) - zone 5 white young wine grape or table grape has a low susceptibility to most grape diseases. Vulnerable to wind damage. Semi-upright growth habit. Ripens mid season. Source: Red Dog Vineyards America (Vitis lincecumii X V. rupestris) - zone 5 dark blue, pleasant flavor better in warmer regions, Pierce's Disease resistant. has a low susceptibility to most grape diseases. black rot resistant. requires a second variety for pollination. Ripens midseason. Drought tolerant. V. lincecumii is sometimes considered a subspecies of V. aestivalis. Parentage from V. rupestris gives easy rooting of dormant cuttings. Drooping growth habit. SOURCES: Double A Vineyards, Bunch Mars (Vitis Labrusca X V. vinifera) - zone 5 purple/blue concord type seedless, moderate flavor has a low susceptibility to most grape diseases. Ripens midseason. Drooping growth habit. Source: Raintree Norton (Vitis aestivalis X V. vinifera X Vitis labrusca) - zone 6 blue red hybrid young wine grape very flavorful, low yield good disease resistance except moderate susceptibility to mildew. Woody cuttings with Vitis aestivalis parentage tend to be difficult to root. Use layering to root. Ripens late season. Drooping growth habit. Source: Ripley County Farms ********************************************** Muscadine Grape (Vitis rotundifolia): (Point of origin: the Americas) Nutrition: red carlos type Most are self fertile but not all, zone 6 Resveratrol is only in the seed. Use top wire or GDC. Muscadine Grapes - no resveratrol in skins Noble (Vitis rotundifolia) - Self fertile, red Ripens mid season. University of Georgia - Noble grape *************************************************** Variety links: Iowa State - cold climate grapes Ohio State University - grape production University of Illinois Oklahoma State - varieties Washington State - cold climate varieties Cornell - French / American hybrids Univ Minn - Hybrid variety trends Hybrid wine varieties Purdue - grapes for Indiana Purdue - older grape list Cornell - cold climate grapes **************************************************

Grape Pruning and Training:

Cane Pruning: An argument can be made to do everything with cane pruning, especially in cool climates. The major advantage is less disease pressure after 10 years of growth. University of Vermont - cane pruning helps control disease *************************************************** Fruitful node locations: U.C. Davis - cane pruning, bud position Cornell - bud position & fruitfulness ***************************************************** Cane pruning examples: Dave Wilson - cane pruning Michael Neal - Cane pruning UC Davis - do not prune until early spring Even the trunks can be refreshed every 10 years if necessary. A sucker can be allowed to grow into a second trunk. The primary is removed only after the secondary is mature. *************************************************** Discussion of other training and pruning subjects: Iowa State - root formation University of Tenn - trunk renewal, layering ***************************************************** How to prevent early bud break damage with secondary spring pruning: Prevent early bud break with a tourniquet ***************************************************** What to do after a late spring freeze: After a late spring freeze *****************************************************

Grape Diseases:

Even the American varieties can eventually succumb to the phylloxera insect. Test Results Oklahoma State - grape rootstocks Missouri State - rootstocks South Australian - rootstocks Kentucky State - rootstocks *************************************************** Disease links: Purdue - midwest fruit diseases ATTRA - Grape Management Phylloxera Predators Grape IPM *****************************************************

Grape Management:

Cultivation: The key to growing healthy fruit, nut, and legume trees and vines is to not over improve your soil or over water. If the plants grow slowly, they will have more dense wood, and therefore be more disease and stress resistant. Labrusca type grapes may have a hard time ripening evenly in warmer climates. Extremely micorrhizal dependent. Fungal colonies in grapes Grapes switch to ectomycorrhizal fungus Purdue - control TA with genes, sun, yield Acid profiles *********************************** Grazing sheep in the vineyard: When using sheep to maintain the cover between rows, it is critical to at least remove the adult sheep once veraison begins. Young sheep do a better job of eating fallen fruit without getting up in the branches. Southdown Olde English Baby Doll Registry *************************************************** Bird Netting: Displaying dead birds throughout the orchard / vineyard is a long standing practice for controlling birds. Bird-b-Gone University of New Hampshire - tightrope Lasers to control birds *************************************************** Pollination: Grapes are self-fertile but still have evolutionary insect attractors Grape breeding through pollination control U.C. Davis - flower development **********************************************

European Cold Climate Grapes:

These pure V. vinifera grapes do require more canopy management, close attention to soil PH, fungal sprays, etc. But most of them will produce superior wines that age well. Unfortunately, GDD and USDA winter hardiness are not always coordinated to compliment each other. Examples: Bainbridge Island Vineyard - cold climate grape examples Lopez Island Vineyard - cold climate grape examples Washington State Trials Colorado State Wines of Canada Cornell - Vitis vinifera Michigan Wines Michigan State Research: Washington State - GDD rankings Growing Wine Grapes in Maritime Western Washington Maturity timed at end of season Oak fermentation to smooth cold climate wines Diurnal temperature variation effects GDD / GST by country / region ************************************************* If your area is cool in the summer, the varieties listed below are the ones that will ripen at around 1500 GDD. If your area also has erratic spring or fall weather, then you should also choose one of the early maturing / late bud break varieties listed below. Siegerrebe (Vitis vinifera): Winter hardy to zone 7. late bud break ripens very early slightly red, low acid susceptible to bunch rot attractive to birds and wasps Pinot Noir Precoce (Vitis vinifera): red, zone 6 early bud break - use secondary spring pruning with turniquet. early ripening susceptible to bunch rot Better in a dry fall climate or use cluster thinning. Washington State Trials UC Davis - management of Pinot Wine Folly - all clones *************************************************** These varieties are slightly less cold hardy, but if your GDD is 1600-1900, they should grow well if grafted on root stock. Pinot Noir Pommard (Vitis vinifera): red early bud break early ripening susceptible to bunch rot Zone 7 UC Davis - management of Pinot Wine Folly - all clones Pinot Gris (Vitis vinifera): slightly more resistant to bunch rot. slightly red early bud break early ripening Zone 7 UC Davis - management of Pinot Wine Folly - all clones Zweigelt (Vitis vinifera): red, acidic late bud break early ripening requires cluster thinning Most popular red in Austria. Disease resistant Zone 6 WSU - Ripens just above 1600 WSU - ripens best around 1900 Zweigelt taste test Zweigelt Project Wine Folly Chardonnay (Vitis vinifera): white, zone 7 early bud break early ripening Chardonnay *************************************************** If your GDD is slightly >1900, the varieties below should grow well if grafted on root stock. Pinot Noir (all remaining clones) (Vitis vinifera): red early bud break early ripening susceptible to bunch rot Winter hardy to zone 7. UC Davis - management of Pinot Wine Folly - all clones White Riesling (Vitis vinifera): white, zone 6 late bud break Mid / late harvest Susceptible to bunch rot UC Davis Double A Vineyards Chasselas (Vitis vinifera): Winter hardy to zone 6. Golden, low acid Improved by mimicking growing conditions at point of origin: Lake Geneva. DNA history Fonjallaz Vineyard near Epesses ***************

Bud grafting has become the most popular form of asexual propagation on European grape vines. Inverted T bud grafting is perhaps the easiest and most reliable. But if done properly, chip budding does produce a stronger graft more quickly.

Cornell - comparison of T and chip
Santa Cruz - T and chip budding with great details
University of Kentucky
Wine Science - chip can be placed on a node
Chip budding tool


(Malus pumila) - (Point of origin: Asia and Europe)

The varieties listed here are some of the most disease resistant and long lived available. They are ideal for a low input organic orchard.

                Red apples - pyruvate
                Quercetin (yellow skin exposed to sun)
                Luteolin  (yellow skin exposed to sun)
                Anthocyanin ( red skin exposed to sun )
                The apple is among the most efficient 
                crops for calories produced per acre.
                Low glycemic index.
                Apple varieties ranked
                Heirloom apples make better cider (watercore)
     Properties: plant within 100 ft 
                 of different variety for pollinator
     Alternative Pest Hosts:
            cedar, juniper, mountain ash, 
            cotoneaster, quince, brambles, oaks, 
            maples, grapes
                Haralred - 
                          offspring of Haralson,
                          good disease resistance,
                          midseason bloom, 
                          late harvest date
                          biennial, zone 3b, 
                          red with slight yellow
                Trust - red, zone 3
                          very disease resistant
                          middle harvest date
                Novamac - zone 4, 
                          mcintosh type, 
                          dessert apple, 
                          red and yellow evenly
                          , medium season bloom
                          , medium to late harvest date
                          Mostly tip bearing 
                          so harder to manage
                          Slightly susceptible to quince rust, 
                          powdery mildew
                          Very resistant to everything else. 
                Freedom - zone 4, slightly tart
                          yellow and red, biennial
                          , thinning will reduce biennial tendency.
                          , very resistant to almost everything
                          , early to medium season bloom
                          , medium to late harvest date
                          , mostly tip bearing so harder to manage
                          Jung Seed
                Liberty - zone 4b, mcintosh type.
                          dessert apple. red with slight yellow.
                          , very resistant to almost everything
                          Triploid so will not pollinate anything.
                          Attractive to the curculio because it
                          grows big so quickly.
                          early to medium season bloom.
                          late season harvest
                          Semi-spur. Biennial.
                          Requires thinning.
                          Orange Pippin
                William's Pride - zone 4,
                          dessert apple, red and slight yellow
                          , early to medium season bloom
                          Semi-spur. Short spurs.
                          Does not perform well in hot summers.
                          Slightly susceptible to quince rust, 
                          bitter pit, water core,
                          but very resistant to everything else.
                          Thinning will reduce biennial tendency.
                          Early ripening, but uneven.
                          One Green World
                Enterprise - zone 4, deep red
                          , medium to late season bloom
                          , very good storage apple
                          , slightly susceptible to mildew, cedar apple rust
                          , very resistant to everything else
                          , better in dry environments
                          , thinning will reduce biennial tendency.
                          , late ripening
                          Stark Bros
                Priscilla - red and slight yellow
                          , medium season bloom
                          , spur bearer, zone 4, low yield
                          , slightly susceptible to canker, quince rust
                          , highly resistant to everything else
                          , do not fertilize
                          , plant in well drained area
                          , mid season ripening
                          Orange Pippin
                Runkel - red, zone 5
                          , very disease resistant
                          , mid season bloom
                          , late ripening
                Sundance - yellow, zone 5
                          , medium to late bloom
                          , thinning will reduce bienniel tendency
                          , very disease resistant
                          , hint of pineapple
                          , late ripening
                Brite Gold - yellow, zone 5
                          , very disease resistant except rust
                          , mid season ripening

                Once effective biological controls are firmly established 
                in an orchard, some of the more flavorful heirloom apples 
                may be grown. They are far more disease prone and will
                require special care:
                Coxs Orange Pippin, Holstein, Esopus Spitzenburg, Maidens Blush
                Pitmaston Pineapple, DArcy Spice, Ashmeads Kernel, Dutchess of Oldenberg, 
     Biological Controls:
           Leftover water from kitchen ferment 
           contains lactobacillus which can be 
           used as a biological control.
           Michael Phillips - biological awareness; part 1-16+
           Journal of Botanical Sciences - 2017, preharvest competitive colonization
           Wiley - 2007, peach
           APS Journal - 2007, grape
           Michael Phillips - alternative sprays
     Low Input:
           Ragmans Lane Farm - low input
     Blooming and Fruiting:
           AEA - blooming physiology
           Royal Oak Orchard
     Insect Control:
           Univ of Cal - ATTRA Apple Organic Guide
           NCSU - ATTRA
           Iowa State - Cedar apple rust
           Iowa State - Organic insect control
           Cornell - Organic apple insect control
           InfoHouse - organic insect controls
     Disease Resistance:
           Purdue - apple disease resistance
           Iowa State - cultivars
           University of Missouri
           Atlantic Canada
           Ontario Canada
           Montana State
           Purdue - fireblight resistant apples
           Univ California - organic apples
           Univ of Vermont
     Extreme cold climates:
           Cold climate rootstocks
           Univ Alaska - cold climate fruit
           Force sensitive trees into early dormancy with grafting
           This technique may also work for other fruits.
           Own root for increased vigor / disease resistance
           St. Lawrence - cold hardy Antonovka
           Inoculation tests
           NC140 - Rootstock comparison
           Penn State - characteristics
     Pruning or Espalier:
           Even though most commercial orchards use dwarf rootstocks, 
           low input farmers can use trees on their own root stock to 
           gain longer lived orchards with less risk and easy self propagation.
           Modified Central Leader for low input organic orchards
           Espaliered Apple Trees for small spaces
           There are some very disease resistant varieties
           listed here that are tip bearing.
           So they work better in a spindle system with a 
           trellis, than in a low input stand alone system 
           like modified central leader.
           Mechanical thinning does not appear to select for 
           quality very well.
           Almost all sprays tend to have some kind of 
           side effect, such as russeting.
           Michael Phillips - organic
           Univ of Guelph - lime sulphur, fish oil
     Bench Grafters:
           Wagon Wheel Orchard
           Kuffel Creek
           Maple Valley Orchards
           Apple corer thin slicer



(Prunus cerasus) - (Point of origin: Europe and Asia) Nutrition: anthocyanidins quercetin Properties: needs good drainage, deep tap root. sour cherries are the most disease resistant. Sweet cherries are far more disease susceptible. early bloom is the biggest problem in cherries. Ectomycorrhizal. Extra-floral nectaries in very early spring for beneficial insects. Late Bloom Varieties: Evans / Bali / Eubank - zone 3, semi dwarf, late bloom, late ripen sour Surefire - zone 4, late bloom, late ripen, sour Carmine Jewel - zone 2b, med-late bloom, bush hybrid sweet sour cross (Prunus cerasus x P. fruticosa) from University of Saskatchewan self pollinating, early ripening. disease and insect resistant. Sources: Cummins, DNA Gardens, St. Lawrence, Burnt Ridge Nursery Pruning and training: Use caution when selecting a training and pruning method for highest yield. The extra expense and risk may eat up all your profits. KGB - lowest input KGB, SL, VCL on G6 Michigan State - KGB details KGB System in Oregon Comparison of systems North Carolina State - Pruning Fruit Trees Rootstock: Cherry Rootstock alternatives ************************************************


(Point of origin: Asia / Russia / America) Nutrition: Purple or red varieties contain resveratrol and rutin and anthocyanin. Cold tolerant varieties include Northrop, Tatarica, David Smith, and Illinois Everbearing. Red Mulberry (Morus rubra) - native American Properties: zone 4 depending on variety tart. shade tolerant. Also makes good forage. early uneven ripening Good for coppice Purple Mulberry (Morus alba) - Asian or Russian silkworm tree or weeping tree Properties: zone 5 bland flavor Good forage. Good for coppice Black Mulberry (Morus nigra) Properties: zone 6, best tasting *****************************************************


(Hippophae rhamnoides): Advantages: very high in vitamin C Seed is high in omega 3 oil winter and drought hardy Fixates nitrogen. Suckers Disadvantages: requires freezing to remove astringency so best harvested late very thorny does not bear every year performs poorly in hot climates Varieties: Hergo: high vitamin C Leikora: large berries. German origin. Source: Raintree, St. Lawrence Nursery Information: NCBI - nutrients *****************************************************

Rose Hips:

(Rosa canina L.): Nutrition: Vitamin C, hull only - not the seed. Vitamin C highest in cool climates. Seeds are high in vitamin E, good for animals. Hairs around the seeds are irritating. Harvest: Harvest as soon as the hips are ripe. Usually mid season ripening. Do not allow to remain on the plant exposed to the elements, as this greatly reduces vitamin C. Preparation: The outer shell is where all the vitamin C is. dry, vacuum pack, refrigerate, keep in darkness, do not grind until use. keep from oxygen!!!!!!! Cooking destroys vitamin C. Chew raw for best results. Properties: canina is highest in vitamin C perrennial, zone 3 not drought tolerant Source: Richters ************************************************************************* ************************************************************************* ************************************************************************* *************************************************************************

Other Fruits:

Pacific Northwest Fruit See Remaining Trees for more fruits ************ Fruit not listed and reasons: Many fruits were rejected because of low nutrition. Also many were rejected because they are tropical. Cantalope - cannot store Cranberry - nutritious but requires moist acid-peat soil Pear - cannot store easily, disease prone Prickly Pear - requires desert, very nutritious Red Raspberry - too disease prone Strawberry - very disease prone Watermelon - cannot store NanKing Cherry - too susceptible to fungus Quince - must start to decay before it can be eatin Medlar - must start to decay before it can be eatin Hardy kiwifruit (Actinidia aruguta or kolomikta) - very slow growth and small yield Juneberry or serviceberry - fireblight reservoir Highbush cranberry - moderately nutrititious and low flavor Gooseberry (Ribes hirtellum) - low in flavor and nutrition Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) - fireblight reservoir Buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea) - fixates nitrogen but susceptible to stem canker Asian or Nashi pear ( Pyrus pyrifolia ) - many diseases, low nutrition Lingonberries - very susceptible to fungus. ************************************************************************* ************************************************************************* ************************************************************************* *************************************************************************


Nuts: Do not freeze or cook nuts as this destroys vitamin E. The nuts listed below are among the easiest to digest. Since these are high in enzyme inhibitors, soak / ferment them. Some people are intolerant. But even if you are intolerant, some people can still tolerate the oils, which can provide the essential fatty acids. ******** Hazelnut / Filbert: Information: Savanna Institute - hazelnut development University of Wisconsin - hazelnut development initiative University of Wisconsin - hazelnut details Ontario government evaluation Ontario Nut Growers Midwest Hazelnut - hybrid programs Processing and Cracking Nursery Techniques Research: Oregon State Rutgers University of Wisconsin Arbor Day Foundation Properties: High in vitamin E and biotin. Ectomycorrhizal. Mid to Late ripening ******** Hazelbert (Corylus sp.): Properties: hybrid of American Hazelnut and European Filbert. medium sized nut blight resistant. Zone 4 late ripening Badgersett Nursery, MN Badgersett Nursery - woody agriculture ******** Forest Agriculture Hybrids (Corylus sp.): Properties: hybrid of American Hazelnut, European Filbert, Asian, etc. medium sized nut blight resistant. Zone 4 Forest Agriculture, WI ************ Grimo hybrids (Corylus sp.): Properties: Hybrid of Turkish, American, European, and Asian hazelnut. blight resistant, mite resistant. Zones 3-5 Grimo Nut, Ontario ************ Yamhill (Corylus sp.): Properties: hybrid hazelnut. large nut, blight resistant , mite resistant, small tree Zones 5, from Oregon State University Willis Orchards - Georgia ************ Chinese (Corylus chinensis): Properties: very blight resistant , medium sized nut, zone 6 Rhora's Nut Farm, Ontario *************************************************** *************************************************** *************************************************** English or Persian Walnut (Juglans regia): (Point of origin: Asia) Nutrition: Moderate levels of omega 3. High in omega-6 and omega-9 oil. High in magnesium , delicious taste , high in B6 Properties: Shells are phytotoxic , leaves are insecticidal , only moderately resistant to TCD , ripens mid season unevenly Variety: Carpathian Walnut from Carpathian Mountains of Poland , hardy to zone 4. Information: Walnut Symposium Walnut pruning Univ Missouri - Walnut pruning The hybrid Walnut may have more resistance. Hybrid Walnut Source: Vilmorin, Walnut Tree Co., Rhora's, Burnt Ridge *************************************************** *************************************************** *************************************************** Heartnut (Juglans ailantifolia var. cordiformis): (Point of origin: Japan, Eastern Russia) Properties: Flavor similar to walnut Hardy to zone 5B Walnut bunch disease - may be due to zinc deficiency Information: Grimo Nuts Ontario Ministry of Agriculture Rhoras Society of Ontario Nut Growers Heartnut in the UK *************************************************** *************************************************** *************************************************** Butternut (Juglans cinera): (Point of origin: North America) Properties: Hardy to zone 3 Information: Nuts in New York Ontario Ministry of Agriculture *************************************************** *************************************************** *************************************************** Black Walnut (Juglans nigra): Not recommended due to the walnut twig beetle and the spread of thousand canker disease. Hardy to zone 4. Thousand Cankers map Univ of California Ohio State ************************************************************************* ************************************************************************* ************************************************************************* ************************************************************************* Pecan (Carya pecan): (Point of origin: North America) Nutrition: High in gamma and alpha tocopheral (vitamin E) High in magnesium Properties: Easy to grow except in high wind areas since the wood is soft and breaks easily. Tolerates moist soils Ripens late Pruning: New Mexico State - pruning pecan Zone 5 Sources: Stark Bro's, Grimo, Rhora's ******** Remaining Trees ******** Nuts not listed: Almond is very nutritious, but requires extremely dry desert conditions to grow. They are a rich source of GABA and pterostilbene. *************************************************** *************************************************** *************************************************** ***************************************************

Orchard Layout:

Orchards and vineyards have been planted as monocultures for thousands of years for harvesting efficiency sake. But monocultures create an environment that is disease prone. Polyculture orchards and vineyards should be planted with a strategic mixture of diversity and supportive plants that balance efficiency with sustainability. Guilds of plants that thrive in similar environmental conditions may be the best guiding design principle. And legume trees and bushes can help provide nitrogen.

Orchard and Vineyard Guilds

Mixed species orchards, vineyards, alley cropping, and silvopasture will help prevent disease by forming complex networks of mycorrhizal fungus where the trees and vines help each other fight off disease. It also confuses insects.

PLOS ONE - mycorrhizal network shared across many plants
Nature - Complex Plant Fungus Networks
Willow, Cottonwood, Aspen, Hickory, and Walnut connect networks
University of Missouri - forest crop diversity

A polyculture orchard may be less efficient in the short run, but if it does not have to be replanted for a much longer time, it may be far more productive in the long run.

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