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Organic Agricultural Information

Sustainable Standards Schedules References Agriculture Links
Planting soil temperature

6-8 weeks after last frost
Beans / Okra 77 F

1-2 weeks before last average frost
Beets 60 F
Carrots 60 F

2-3 weeks before last average frost
Fava 55 F
Brassica 55 F
Sweet Peas lentils 55 F
Spinach 55 F
Poppy 55 F

3-4 weeks before average last frost
Chamomile 52 F
Turnips 50 F 
Radish 50 F
Oats/Barley 50 F

4-5 weeks before average last frost
Mustard 45 F
Field Pea 45 F
Flax 47 F
Siberian Kale 45 F
Forage Rapeseed 45 F

Grow Great Vegetables - Germination soil temps
SARE - see cultural traits section for germination temps
Southern Exposure - cold tolerance guide
FAO - cold tolerance guide
Oats 50 F 


Planting Dates and Schedules:

Planting date is more important for cold weather crops than soil temperature because these crops must get ahead of weeds and diseases that come with warm weather. For cold weather crops, once you reach the planting date and soil temperature minimum, it is time to plant; unless an unusually hard freeze is predicted.

Old Farmers Almanac - planting dates
Montana State - aggressive guide by frost date - check long term forecast before planting

Average Frost Dates and Tolerance:

Victory Seeds - average frost dates
Farmers Almanac  - average frost dates

Sustainable Standards:

Organic, regenerative, and sustainable certifications are useful to indicate to consumers that agricultural practices are being used which are focused on the long term future of the land. But, these standards still need to continue to evolve. Many of them are still written to protect against the kinds of diseases that come with industrial agriculture. They are not written to encourage the natural disease suppression that comes with a diversified organic farm.

Regenerative Organic Certification
Scientific Certification Systems
USDA National Organic Program
Certified Naturally Grown - organic for small local farmers
Demeter - animals in biodynamics
American Grass Fed



USGS - groundwater
MIT - groundwater resources overdrawn

Crop Diseases

Cornell University - disease lists

Seed Saving

Seed Storage Times


EcoReactor - Cannabis
Springer - cannabis
Springer - glypohsate
Frontiersin - glyphosate
Lemna minor - glyphosate


Constructed Wetlands - waste water treatment

Constructed wetlands

EPA - Constructed wetlands

Processes for constructed wetlands

Constructed wetland plants

Beginner Books:
The Encyclopedia of Organic Gardening by Rodale
The Complete Vegetable & Herb Gardener by Burpee
Taylor's Guide to Fruits and Berries
American Horticultural Society, Pests & Diseases 
          by Pippa Greenwood
Advanced Books and Links:
Plant Propagation - excellent section on root grafting
Root grafting
Seed to Seed by Suzanne Ashworth Biological Control of Weeds and Plant Diseases by Elroy L. Rice Roots Demystified by Robert Kourik Lessons in Nature by Malcolm Beck *************************************************

Agriculture Links:


National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service

SARE Provides Grants and Information to Improve Profitability, Stewardship and Quality of Life

Purdue Crop Index

Index of crops with detailed descriptions.


plant index

Cornell University

vegetable variety comparisons

Utah State

Variety test results

Weston A. Price

Combination agriculture and nutrition site

Organic Farming Research Foundation

OFRF integrated strategy of grantmaking, policy, education and networking initiatives supports organic farmers immediate information needs while moving the public and policymakers toward greater investment in organic farming systems.

CIAS is a sustainable agriculture research center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Resource Centres Urban Agriculture and Food Security

University of Missouri Extension

University of Missouri Extension: Missouri Alternatives Center - North Central Initiative for Small Farm Profitability.

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