Garden For Nutrition Index
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Organic Self Sufficient Garden Crop Rotation:


Rotation Rules
Cover Crop Cocktails
Management Practices
Vegetable Rotation Example
Grain Legume Rotation
Polyculture, Silvopasture, Alley Cropping, and Ecoagriculture
Conclusions
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Rotation Rules:

Crop rotation is one of the most important tools to prevent disease in organic gardening. Planting the same crops in the same place repeatedly will allow disease to build up.

Skip 2 years between growing crops of the same type. (grain, legume, root, greens, etc.)

Cereal crops and non-cereal crops have extremely different diseases that they are susceptible to, so switch back and forth as much as possible.

The most disease susceptible non cereal (broadleaf) crops are dry beans, sunflower, and squash. Try not to grow these crops back to back. Plant resistant varieties, use clean culture or roll all residue to the ground, do not overwater, never water these crops from overhead, keep squash vines off the ground, etc.

Buckwheat, mustard, alfalfa, and flax are the most disease resistant of the non-cereal crops. Use these crops or grains between beans, sunflower, and squash.

Sorghum (C4), millet, and oats are the more disease resistant of the grains.

To prevent insects, plant brassica only in the fall.

The nightshade family presents many crop rotation problems due to disease prevalence. Many plant diseases are much easier to control without the nightshade family in the rotation.

Try not to plant crops which are heavy feeders of the same nutrient in the same place consecutively. If this cannot be avoided, then take special measures such as intercropping, mulching, or amendments.

NDSU - Crop Rotations for Managing Plant Disease
SARE - Crop Rotation
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Cover Crop Cocktails:

Perhaps the best method to increase fertility and reduce disease is to convert a field / bed to pasture for several years. This will not only interrupt most disease / pest / weed cycles, but also increase carbon compound levels in the soil. Carbon compounds are the energy source for micro-organisms.

Pasture row crop rotation

The latest research indicates that plant communities suppress diseases better than monoculture rotations. But, cover crop cocktails need to be rotated also. And caution must be used when determining which cover crops to use. Not all cover crops are easy to teminate. Some crops require a hard freeze to terminate so do not plant them unless your area has dependable hard freezing. Most of the disease suppression comes from the grasses and herbs/broadleafs. Fertility comes from the legumes.


Plant Diversity Improves Protection
Georg August University in Göttingen, Germany
USDA NRCS East National Technology Support Center - undercover farmers
NCAT ATTRA - Innovative No-Till: Using Multi-Species Cover Crops
Gabe Brown - why he switched to no till
Rodale - ultra early spring cover crops
ATTRA Cover Crops
North Carolina State - cover crops

Because of airborn fungal disease and insect migration, rotations should occassionally skip large distances. Crops should not just move to the adjacent field or plot every year. Rotating row crop fields with pasture fields is ideal for increasing nutrients and reducing disease.

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Management Practices:

At the end of the season, if using no-till, make sure all remaning organic matter is in contact with the soil once crops are terminated. If not using no-till, practice clean culture in the field and under trees and vines. Thoroughly chopping up residue and watering will speed decomposition and reduce mold.

Do not practice clean culture in beneficial perennial plant plots. Many beneficial insects pupate in the soil and they tend to do it around beneficial perennials.

Immediately remove diseased plants as soon as symptoms become detectable.

Pasture cropping is extremely effective for crops that are allelopathic such as grasses. It even works well for legumes if they have vigorous growth.


Colin Seis - pasture cropping
Perennial cover crop
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Vegetable Rotation Example:

(ZONE 5-7)

It is important to have a medium sized kitchen garden where animals are never allowed during the growing season and it is far from fresh animal manure. This is the garden which is safe to eat raw from.

The rotation below is an example of organic reduced tillage. Very shallow tillage is needed every few years. The keys to maximizing organic mineralization and fertility are to plant very early to get roots in the ground as soon as possible in spring, grow as late as possible into the winter, and grow in-place mulch inside the garden. The in-place mulch will need to be supplemented with off-site mulch and extended by the use of inter-cropping. The off-site mulch is needed mainly on the root crops. In the years when the mulch is too thick to plant with a seeder, use transplanting or just mow the residue and move it to where it is needed.


Rotation Graphical Image

1. VERY EARLY SPRING - green peas
   MID SPRING - proso millet 
            phacelia, safflower, sesame,  
            cowpea, mung
   EARLY FALL - transplant collards, kale, turnip, radish
                Brassica campestris, B. napus, B. juncea.
   MID FALL - crimson clover, spring wheat
2. LATE WINTER - flax
   MID SPRING - okra / amaranth
   MID SUMMER - intercrop: buckwheat, barley, 
                fava
   MID WINTER - garlic
3. VERY EARLY SPRING - chickling vetch, lupin
   EARLY SPRING - transplant fennel, celery, onion, leek, 
                  milk thistle, parsley, anise, alyssum.
   LATE SPRING - As you harvest:
                 Phacelia, Fenugreek, Teff, hemp
   EARLY FALL - oats
4. VERY EARLY SPRING - green peas
   MID SPRING - millet, amaranth, safflower, sesame, 
                cowpea, mung.
   EARLY FALL - transplant collards, kale, turnip, radish
                Brassica campestris, B. napus, B. juncea.
   MID FALL - crimson clover, sprint wheat
5. LATE WINTER - flax.
   EARLY SUMMER - corn or rice.
   EARLY FALL - cereal rye or triticale / hairy vetch.
6. LATE SPRING - Transplant butternut squash and
                 Tatume squash
                 Inter-crop for replacement mulch:
                 sorghum, amaranth, hemp
                 Sesbania, Sunn Hemp
   EARLY FALL - barley, buckwheat, fava
7. VERY EARLY SPRING - chickling vetch, lupin
   EARLY SPRING - carrot, chicory, parsnip, salsify
                  red beet, sugar beet
   LATE SPRING - intercrop: Teff, fenugreek 
                 transplant alyssum
   EARLY FALL - oats
                transplant calendula, nasturtium, 
                marigold, chrysanthemums, gazanias, 
                snapdragon.
   MID WINTER - Transplant dormant roots from other 
            beds for seed production next spring.
            ( onion, leek, celery, parsley, 
            collards, kale, turnip, rape)
Advantages of this rotation:

Almost 2 years between each crop type, except the cover crops. The cover crops are not allowed to mature and build up disease.

4 out of 7 years, the beds will produce a high calcium / magnesium crop. Most calcium crops are preceded by a non-calcium crop.

This rotation provides folates and vitamin K sources year round: asparagus in early spring; turnip, nettle, and dandelion greens in the spring; peas in the late spring; lambsquarters in early summer; okra in summer; chicory and turnip in the fall; collards in late fall; leek and kale in early winter; Siberian kale in late winter; and onions and beet root in late winter / early spring.

Another advantage of this rotation is that most of the late spring / early summer crops tend to be fairly resistant to late frost and hail. Lentils, peas, fava, and chickpea can regrow if damaged by frost or hail. Root crops are frost resistant and seldom lost to hail damage. Flax is very frost and hail resistant. Okra and beans will regrow as long as the first node is intact. Indeterminate beans will recover faster than determinate types. Hail and high wind are most likely in the late spring and early summer. Plant squash in large pots and wait to transplant as late as possible after the major hail season has passed.

Oats, barley, and wheat can be used in northern regions as a fall cover crop since the winters are cold enough to kill them and prevent regrowth. This allows for early spring planting the next year.

A manually maintained garden is more efficient than a commercial source if most of the crops are those for which it is very difficult to harvest mechanically, there is a nutritional freshness advantage, or a yield advantage. Most of the crops listed fit into these categories.

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Grain Legume Rotation:

Zone 5-7 example rotation: These are the staple crops that are hard to justify growing manually. Some manual crops are mixed in to create a balanced and complete rotation. Growing these crops as part of a local community is really the most efficient method. A certain size is required before the cost of machinery can be long term sustainable. For efficiency and long term sustainability, these crops should never be fed to animals. Instead, the permaculture crops discussed in the next section should be used as animal feed.


Grain / Legume Rotation Graphical Image

1. SPRING - inoculated white bean
   AFTER HESSIAN FLY-FREE DATE - winter wheat
2. EARLY SUMMER - harvest wheat and roll straw
            For cover plant German Foxtail Millet, heirloom corn 
            safflower, sesame, amaranth, 
            cowpea, mung, sesbania, sunn hemp.
   EARLY FALL - roll chop / mow for mulch before they go to seed.
   EARLY FALL - collards, kale
                crimson clover, berseem
                as living mulch
3. SPRING - hemp, sesame, or chia
   EARLY FALL - oats
                phacelia, Calendula, buckwheat
                fava, chickling vetch
                for weed control and mycorrhizal fungi.
4. LATE WINTER - flax
   SPRING - inoculated peanut or other legume. 
   EARLY FALL - harvest peanut and weed.
   EARLY FALL - Plant cereal rye or triticale / hairy vetch.
5. LATE SPRING - roll cover
                 double transplant rice.
   MID FALL - Harvest the rice and leave residue
               as cover.
               Plant fava, chickling vetch
               Brassica campestris, B. napus, B. juncea.
               oats, 
               Not enough time for full cover but will feed
               micorrhizae.
6. LATE WINTER - flax / lupin for cover
   SPRING - mow flax
            plant sunflower
   EARLY FALL - Phacelia, Calendula, buckwheat
            oats, 
            berseem, crimson clover
7. SPRING - carrot, beet, onion.
            even maturing varieties.
   EARLY SUMMER - Harvest and weed.
            For cover:
            German Foxtail Millet, sorghum 
            safflower, sesame, amaranth, 
            cowpea, mung, sesbania, sunn hemp.
   EARLY FALL - oats, 
                phacelia, Calendula, buckwheat
                fava, chickling vetch.
ADVANTAGES:

2 years between most crop types except legumes. can be But the legume cover crops are not allowed to mature thereby reducing disease. And when grown in a cocktail, the diseases are suppressed.

DISADVANTAGES:

The most vulnerable broadleafs, sunflower and legumes, are only one year apart.

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Polyculture, Silvopasture, Alley Cropping, and Ecoagriculture:

Orchards and vineyards have been planted as monocultures for thousands of years for efficiency sake. But monocultures create an environment that is disease prone. Polyculture orchards and vineyards may be less efficient for harvesting, but they can be more efficient for disease prevention. Legume trees and bushes can also help provide nitrogen.


Tree Orchard and Vineyard Guilds

Mixed species orchards and vineyards will help prevent disease by forming complex networks of mycorrhizal fungus where the trees and vines help each other fight off disease. It also confuses insects.


PLOS ONE - mycorrhizal network shared across many plants
Nature - Complex Plant Fungus Networks
University of Missouri - forest crop diversity

Switching to permaculture crops for many of our staples can be very efficient and stable in spite of climate change.


Badgersett - woody agriculture efficiency

These pictures of what agriculture was like in the 1800 is what agriculture will return to once the current chemical ladden, monoculture, government handout supported system can no longer be sustained. There will be a thinner line between polyculture orchards and silvopasture.


Historic Agroforestry

How efficient is it to plant a monoculture orchard or vineyard and then be forced to dig it up and replace everything every 20-50 years once the pathogenic fungus, bacteria, and virus have adapted and killed everything? A polyculture orchard may be less efficient in the short run, but if it never experiences a non-productive crash, it may be far more productive in the long run. It may actually be less expensive and therefore more proftable in the short run since there will be almost no spraying. As more trees that were once resistant to diseases are becoming susceptible, at some point we will ask ourselves; can we afford the cost of staying ahead of the disease development rate in monoculture orchards or are we better off with polyculture and let nature fight the battles for us?

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Agroforestry can enhance annual row crops with alley cropping.


University of Missouri - alley cropping
USDA - alley cropping

Many of the drought tolerant trees and bushes listed below are good for alley cropping because they have deep roots that will not compete with the crop. Ideal candidates are Italian Alder, sterile Paulownia, sterile Shipmast, Tulip Tree, Scots Pine, Persian Ironwood, sterile Siberian Pea Shrub, sterile Silverscape, Winterbloom, etc. Others may not be appropriate if fruit or nut drop would interfere with the annual crop and may work better in a silvopasture or polyculture orchard system. Black Walnut is not a good choice for alley cropping because of the allelopathic properties of juglone.


Tree Orchard and Vineyard Guilds
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Ecoagriculture takes the concept one step further by taking a holistic view of the entire landscape.


Dr. Miguel Altieri - ecologically operated farms are more productve
Sustainable agriculture on the Loess Plateau
EverGreen agriculture in Africa
Diversity of ecoagriculture in Africa
Mark Shepard on Restoration Agriculture
Mark Shepard - silvopasture
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Conclusions:

These rotations are not intended for commercial agriculture for human consumption. Commercial agriculture demands adherance to the local environmental limitations much more strictly.

Extra time and expense to overcome local restrictions can be justified for self sufficiency because these crops are consumed locally with little or no distribution costs or marketing concerns. Where rain is common in the fall, sunflowers may need to be manually harvested and hung to dry in a barn. Roots may also need to be manually harvested if rains occur at harvest time. White beans may be perfect nutritionally, but may have purley cosmetic stains that prevent them from being commercially viable. But many of the permaculture crops listed above are perfect for animal consumption if they have cosmetic blemishes.


Garden for Nutrition Index