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Temperate Climate Pasture Crops and Management

Grazing Links Ruminant Physiology Disease Controls Hay Moving Animals Abattoirs Books

Grazing Management Links:

Oregon State - harvest at late boot for maximum cellulose Journal of Equine Veterinary Science - list of weeds high in sugar that can aid fermentation. VABF - Greg Judy High density grazing. VTForages - Jim Gerrish - Winter grazing, energy to protein ratio VTForages - Jim Gerrish - winter grazing, partial grazier eOrganic - winter stockpiling Mark Bader - grazing eOrganic - Sarah Flack, preventing pasture problems Good discussion of characteristics of grazing varieties. VTForages - Silvopasture overview, Honeylocust Forest Connect - Silvopasture examples, Honeylocust Plants cannot utilize full sunlight. VTFORAGES - Joshua Dukart, at 20:25 the examples become very good Improving pasture with Mycorrhizae Twice over grazing management for increase in Mycorrhizae. Cornell University - forage and grazing management Encyclopedia of Animal Science - forage toxicity Free Choice Enterprises Free Choice Enterprises ration balancing for beef nutrition. Montana State University Use goats and sheep to control invasive weeds.

Ruminant Physiology:

FAO - ruminant digestion

The micro-organisms that ferment cellulose are different from the ones that ferment grains. The flora that ferment cellulose use ammonia as an energy source. Rumen fermentation will break down most of the ingested protein to form this ammonia. Therefore, in pure forage fed animals, most of the protein used for animal growth comes from dead bacteria cells that are the product of cellulose fermentation or bypass protein.

Center for Natural Resource Information Technology

Grazing Management; an Ecological Perspective - Excellant description of ruminant digestion including pre-gastric fermentation, energy from cellulose fermentation producing fatty acids, nitrogen used by microbes for protein synthesis, protein absorption from microbe cell bodies in the post fermentation gastric system, by-pass or escape protein to supplement microbial protein, cool weather grasses being more nutritious than warm weather grasses, compensatory gains, ATP production and usage, etc.

Mark Bader - effect of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon
Barbara Niwinska - ruminant digestion
Penn State - Terminology

Deeper explanation of forage quality terminology.

South Dakota State - terminology
Respiratory Quotient

During cold weather, most ATP production comes from converting fat. During warm weather, most ATP production comes from carbohydrates.


Links to Natural Disease Controls:

Although cattle, sheep and goats share relatively few parasites, they do share the following economically important parasites: Teladorsagia (OstertagÓa) circumcinta, Trichostrongylus axei and colubriformis, Cooperia surnabada, Haemonchus contortus, Nematodirus sp., etc. However swine, poultry, and equine share very few parasites with any other animal group. These groups can be used as part of a rotation to reduce disease and parasites.

Lists of Shared Diseases
University of Pennsylvania - Cooperia
University of Michigan
Barber Pole Worm

Parasite Lifecycles
FAO - parasite lifecycles
Chinchilla Vet - parasite lifecycles - parasite lifecycles
University of Maryland - parasite lifecycles
University of Wisconsin - parasite lifecycles

Ecological Agriculture Project
Alternative methods for controlling internal parasites in ruminants.

Virginia State
Seasonal cycle of parasites due to moisture.

Northeast Organic Farming Association of Vermont

University of Kentucky

Skylines Farm
Skylines Organic Internal Parasite Control.

University of Connecticut
Alternative medicine links.

Livestock Research for Rural Development in India

Country Farm Lifestyles

Stockman Grass Farmer


Hay drying

Links To Moving Animals:

Bud Williams Bud Williams - low stress handling Temple Grandin Temple Grandin - low stress methods

Links For Abattoirs:

ATTRA - processing Cornell - abattoir waste disposal Vermont slaughter feasability USDA abattoir law Joel Salatin - poultry processing on farm Joel Salatin - eviscerating a chicken


Beginners: Storey's Guide to Raising Beef Cattle Heather Smith Thomas Beef Cattle Production Verl L. Thomas North American Range Plants Stubbendieck, Hatch, Butterfield ********** Intermediate: Beef Cattle Science Part A / B Ensminger & Perry Forages, Volume 1: An Introduction to Grassland Agriculture (Volume I) Forages, Volume 2: The Science of Grassland Agriculture (Volume II) Robert F. Barnes ************** Advanced: Grass Productivity Andre Voisin Greener Pasture on Your Side of the Fence: Better Farming Voisin Management-Intensive Grazing (4th Edition) (Volume 4) Bill Murphy Back to Garden for Nutrition Index