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Regenerative Pasture & Animal Management

Grazing Links Ruminant Physiology Disease Controls Hay Moving Animals Abattoirs Books


Grazing Management Links:

Pastures should be allowed to go to seed every 3-4 years to perpetuate legumes. Therefore, it is useful to have breeds that can digest a higher amount of lignan; such as goats, Galloway, Highland, Hereford, Buffalo, or Beefalo cattle. Cattle can be used to trample the seed heads down.

Science Direct - some lignan is digested
Bison can digest more lignan
Goats can digest more lignan
Univ Illinois - lignan can be healthy
Oregon State - harvest at late boot for maximum cellulose
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science - list of weeds high  in sugar that can aid fermentation.

Move water instead of fences

VABF - Greg Judy
High density grazing.
Greg Judy - Managing animals in sync with nature

VTForages - Jim Gerrish - Winter grazing, energy to protein ratio
VTForages - Jim Gerrish - winter grazing, partial grazier

eOrganic - winter stockpiling

Mark Bader - grazing

Mark Sulc - integrated livestock

eOrganic - Sarah Flack, preventing pasture problems
Good discussion of characteristics of grazing varieties.

VTForages - Silvopasture overview, Honeylocust
Forest Connect - Silvopasture examples, Honeylocust
Plants cannot utilize full sunlight.

VTFORAGES - Joshua Dukart, at 20:25 the examples become very good

Cornell University - forage and grazing management

Encyclopedia of Animal Science - forage toxicity

Montana State - goats sheep for invasive weeds


Ruminant Physiology:

FAO - ruminant digestion

The micro-organisms that ferment cellulose are different from the ones that ferment grains. The flora that ferment cellulose use ammonia as an energy source. Rumen fermentation will break down most of the ingested protein to form this ammonia. Therefore, in pure forage fed animals, most of the protein used for animal growth comes from dead bacteria cells that are the product of cellulose fermentation or bypass protein.


Grazing Management; an Ecological Perspective - Excellant description of ruminant digestion including pre-gastric fermentation, energy from cellulose fermentation producing fatty acids, nitrogen used by microbes for protein synthesis, protein absorption from microbe cell bodies in the post fermentation gastric system, by-pass or escape protein to supplement microbial protein, cool weather grasses being more nutritious than warm weather grasses, compensatory gains, ATP production and usage, etc.

Mark Bader - effect of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon
Barbara Niwinska - ruminant digestion
Penn State - Terminology

Deeper explanation of forage quality terminology.

South Dakota State - terminology

During cold weather, most ATP production comes from converting fat. During warm weather, most ATP production comes from carbohydrates.


Links to Natural Disease Controls:

Although cattle, sheep and goats share relatively few parasites, they do share the following economically important parasites: Teladorsagia (Ostertag) circumcinta, Trichostrongylus axei and colubriformis, Cooperia surnabada, Haemonchus contortus, Nematodirus sp., etc. However swine, poultry, and equine share very few parasites with any other animal group. These groups can be used as part of a rotation to reduce disease and parasites.

Lists of Shared Diseases:
University of Michigan
Barber Pole Worm

Parasite Lifecycles:
Chinchilla Vet - parasite lifecycles
University of Maryland - parasite lifecycles
University of Wisconsin - parasite lifecycles

Ecological Agriculture Project

Alternative methods for controlling 
internal parasites in ruminants:

SARE - FAMACHA parasite monitoring

Virginia State
Seasonal cycle of parasites due to 

Northeast Organic Farming Association of Vermont

University of Kentucky

Skylines Farm
Skylines Organic Internal Parasite Control.

University of Connecticut
Alternative medicine links.

Livestock Research for Rural Development in India

Country Farm Lifestyles

Stockman Grass Farmer



Hay was originally baled so it could be sold and transported. If you are not selling the hay, that is a huge expense that can be avoided. Fuel and machinary can be greatly reduced.

Laying up loose hay.
Loose Hay Barn
Hay blower


Links To Moving Animals:

Bud Williams Bud Williams - low stress handling Temple Grandin Temple Grandin - low stress methods


Links For Abattoirs:

ATTRA - processing Cornell - abattoir waste disposal Vermont slaughter feasability USDA abattoir law Joel Salatin - poultry processing on farm Joel Salatin - eviscerating a chicken



Beginners: Storey's Guide to Raising Beef Cattle Heather Smith Thomas Beef Cattle Production Verl L. Thomas North American Range Plants Stubbendieck, Hatch, Butterfield ********** Intermediate: Beef Cattle Science Part A / B Ensminger & Perry Forages, Volume 1: An Introduction to Grassland Agriculture (Volume I) Forages, Volume 2: The Science of Grassland Agriculture (Volume II) Robert F. Barnes ************** Advanced: Grass Productivity Andre Voisin Greener Pasture on Your Side of the Fence: Better Farming Voisin Management-Intensive Grazing (4th Edition) (Volume 4) Bill Murphy Back to Garden for Nutrition Index