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Remaining Self-sufficiency Animals

These remaining animals either cannot eat mostly forage or they are inefficient. However, they are useful in small numbers in that they provide a broad range of nutrition, diversity for disease resistance, and environmental adaptability.


Ducks
Chicken
Hogs
Fish
Llama
Donkey
Beef
Insects
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Ducks:

Advantage: Forage 15-20% FCR between 2:1 through 6:1 Some breeds are good egg layers. Very cold and wet tolerant. Very disease resistant. Omnivorous. Disadvantage: Not as good at grass eating as geese. Keep away from ponds to prevent mucky flavors. Breeds: For cold weather regions, the Swedish, Khaki Cambell, and Cayuga are good choices. For foraging ability, the Runners, Khaki Cambell, Dutch Hookbill, Cayuga, Aylesbury, and Swedish are good choices. Muscovy is the best at foraging but is not as tolerant of cold weather. For egg laying, the Khaki Cambell is a standout. The Runners are also good egg layers. Metzer Farms Micro Farm Life - breeds Journey to Forever - breeds McMurray Hatchery Muscovy duck for warmer climates Parasite treatment: Natural Chicken - cayenne and garlic Poultry Keeper - garlic Shelter: Appropedia
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Chicken:

Nutrition: Egg has a fairly even balance of ldl and hdl cholesterol. Egg contains selenium, phosphatidylserine, biotin, choline. Small bones in broilers are an important source of calcium / magnesium for human diet. Advantages: Forage 5-10% FCR around 2:1 Egg has no purines. Egg is high in lutein and zeaxanthin. Egg has moderate DHA if chickens are fed flax, fruit seeds, or forage. Chickens convert the ALA to DHA better than humans. Better in dry environments than ducks or geese. Much more accomodating to being caged than ducks or geese. Disadvantages: Requires more grain than ducks or geese. Requires high labor input, especially in winter. Many breeds have a mean temper with bullying. Need expensive heated winter protection. Because of this, many farmers in cold climates slaughter most of their adults in the fall, rather than winter them. They mainly winter the younger, and cheaper to to feed, next generation. Allergic reactions can occur to egg protein. Egg shell as a calcium supplement for humans is problematic and is not recommended. Egg Storage: For raw eggs, unwashed refrigerated eggs store best Dried Egg Storage: Dried egg will store the longest if done properly. youtube Tactical Intelligence Feed: A cheap source of wheat, oats, soy, buckwheat, flax, sunflower, etc. is traditional. But for self sufficency try hazelbert, clover, calendula, Chinese Wolfberry, Siberian Pea, squash seed, honey, mushrooms, root parings, purslane, comfrey, maggots, fava, kudzu, fenugreek, fruit, blackberry seed, current seed, larvae, worms, Sea Berry, chokeberry, persimmon, meat, cooked potato, pulverized hay, corn, jerusalem artichoke (leaves and roots), etc. Be sure to grind everything into very small pieces. Let them freely browse for insects, snakes, lizards, frogs, toads, mice, voles, etc. Chickens are omnivores. Allow to browse seed of pastures during reseeding years. Get a guard dog or donkey for protection. Avoid apple seed and grape seed since they contain cyanide and excess tannin. Alliums and brassica impart strong sulphur flavor to eggs. Avoid cherry pits due to choking risk. Feed preparation: If given a chance, chickens will soak their feed in water on their own. Soak whole grains 24 hours to soften and start the process of unlocking enzyme inhibitors. Use a wet grain grinder to crush the grains for ease of digestion. Use a hammermill to pulverize hay. Make your own hammermill Lehman's - meat grinder Chicken feed sites: Chicken Feed United Nations Ahualoa - chicken feed, fava FAYOUM - fenugreek PJBS - fenugreek Engormix - fenugreek Full Spectrum Fluorescent Lights and pink light: University of Main University of Kentucky Medical Light Association North Carolina State FAO Chicken Coops: Historical brooders and coops The Poultry Guide - green roof FAO - cleaning Breed Comparison: Oklahoma State - chicken breeds Small Farm Chickens Breeds: Good free range layers Leghorn great year round layers, foragers, hard to manage, frostbite susceptible, hot weather tolerant Rhode Island Red great year round layers, aggressive cocks, moderately cold weather tolerant Plymouth Rock above average year round layers, cold hardy Wyandotte year round layers, very cold hardy Sussex year round layers, very cold hardy sometimes broody
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Hogs:

(Sus scrofa domesticus) Advantage: Forage 30-50% FCR around 2:1. Used as a copraphagic animal following cattle to increase the efficiency of forage usage. FAO - copraphagia Can be used to eat fallen fruit to interrupt insect pest cycles, especially curculio. Disadvantage: Dig up pastures. This is a huge problem. Best kept as a few animals only to consume excess and left overs. Feed: Hog - non-grain feeding stalls Breeds: The best foragers are Kunekune, Guinea, Large Black, Gloucestershire Old Spot, and Tamworth. Oklahoma State Genetic Diversity Ideal Pig Features Livestock Conservancy Will eat forage but requires some other food sources: Large Black Hog - semi-forager, short fiber pink/red meat, cold hearty Large Black Hog - multi-continent history, developed for foraging American Livestock Breeds Conservancy - Gloucestershire Old Spot Gloucestershire Old Spot - red meat, cold hearty, good-natured Oklahoma State - Gloucestershire Old Spot The Old Spot was historically used primarily to eat fallen fruit and convert farm leftovers by small holders. Mangalitsa - wooly, cold tolerant Mangalitsa breeder More active rooters: American Guinea Hog - bred to forage in forests, heat tolerant Tamworth Hog - cold hearty, semi-forager, red meat Minzhu - small, cold hearty
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Fish:

nutrition: moderate levels of purines properties: can be farm raised easily in freshwater. all of these fish will have some level of omega-3 oils, maybe more depending on their diet. Advantages: Feed conversion ratio slightly over 1:1 Disadvantages: High labor inputs Difficult to control disease Moderately high purine levels Varieties: North American Native Species and their dietary sources: bluegill - algae, zooplankton, insects, plants, invertebrates, small fish reproduces freely very ammonia tolerant Excellent flavor. channel catfish - bottom feeder of detritus will not easily reproduce but can be managed very ammonia tolerant Excellent flavor. Asian Species and their dietary sources: grass carp - feed on soft aquatic plants. can control aquatic plant growth. very ammonia and low oxygen tolerant. Will only spawn in moving water. Excellent flavor. Coastal Species: cod - moderate in purines , high in omega-3 , high in vitamin D salmon - moderately high in purines , high in omega-3. , high in vitamin D Efficient recycling integrated farming systems can be used to create a complete cycle of nutrients. Freshwater Fisheries and Aquaculture in China Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture
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Llama:

Origin: North America / South America Advantages: Good tasting meat. Good tolerance of cold weather. Good as guard animals. Disadvantages: Not tolerant of wet weather. Spitting and aggressive sometimes. Not effective as guards while breeding. Health: Basically same diseases as goats and sheep. Ideal in cold dry regions. Feed: Grass. Guards: Hub Pages Breeds: Oklahoma State *****************************************************

Donkey:

(Equus africanus asinus) Origin: Africa Advantages: Efficient even on poor quality grass. Extremely tolerant of heat and drought. Some breeds are tolerant of cold such as the Poitou. Good as guard animals. Disadvantages: So efficient on grass that rich pasture is not healthy for them. Not tolerant of wet weather. Health: Very disease resistant to infectious diseases. Only shares a few rare diseases and parasites with other cattle, such as the hairworm. Requires hoof trimming. Laminitis: Donkey Sanctuary - feeding straw TopSpec - feeding straw Safer Grass Rocky Mountain Research Safer Grass - weeds Guards: Donkeys as guards in Texas Hub Pages Breeds: Oklahoma State *****************************************************

Beef:

(Bos taurus primigenius) Nutrition: moderate purine levels nutrient rich red meat Muscle has only moderate amounts of EPA / DHA. Advantage: grass eater High in B vitamins. High market demand. Brains and eyes are an extremely rich source of DHA. A big animal is ideal for large open spaces because it requires little attention and can move long distances. Disadvantages: FCR of 8:1 at best. For some breeds, it is 16:1. Because each cow only bears one offspring per year, not an ideal animal. If animals are too large, it may also reduce fertility. Beef cattle are high risk because of the expensive investment and attractiveness to thieves. A big inefficient animal is not ideal on small farms. Avoiding Inbreeding Depression: Oklahoma State - Inbreeding Depression Virginia Polytechnic Institute Inbreeding Depression BioMed Central ************** The cattle below are more about commercial ranching. Most of them are also not as cold tolerant as the Galloway or Highland; Except the Beefalo. Very Docile Breed: South Devon Very Docile, polled, medium sized, very efficient FCR, finish on grass, young at puberty. Moderately Docile Breeds: Murray Grey Murray Grey Docile, polled, medium sized, finish on grass. (North or Red or Ruby Red) Devon Devon Docile, horned or polled, medium sized, finish on grass with very good marbling, can be used as oxen. Hereford Docile, horned or polled, finish on grass, hardy, can be used as oxen, miniature and full sized. Independent Breeds: Angus Independent, polled, finish on grass, high quality marbling, miniature and full sized, fertile. Oklahoma State - Beefalo Independent. Efficient grass eaters. Cold tolerant, great forage eater. Links: Thousand Hills Cattle Co. Stockman Grass Farmer Rotokawa Devons Ontario Ministry of Agriculture Pharo Cattle RCIN - Bison performance on rangeland *****************************************************

Insects:

Advantages: excellent for poultry and fish even for cat and dog food insects which are likely to be more tolerable because they have no exoskeleton are ant eggs, worms, caterpiler, grubs, larvae, etc. Disadvantages: Often requires high protein grain or seed. These grains and seeds are usually more beneficial fed to humans or poultry. Requires warm temperature. Too energy expensive for cold climates. some insects may trigger allergies, especially the hard shell insects. Purine levels are unknown. COMMENTARY: Feed high omega-3 non-food crops like flax, buckwheat greens, or purslane, etc. to insects. Then feed the insects to laying poultry and fish. This might produce even higher levels of DHA. High protein and mineral crops like soy, sesame, quinoa, lambsquarters, amaranth, okra, etc. might also be converted without cooking or processing by feeding them to insects. These crops cannot be fed in large quantities directly to poultry or fish due to flavor and digestability problems. Or convert animal viscera to larvae and feed to poultry. Instead of trying to kill insects in our field crops, we should be harvesting them to feed to our animals. This is the primary method of insect harvesting all over the world. Mississippi State - insect diet for fish Insects as Chicken Feed The Modern Homestead BBC - Insect Farming to Fight World Hunger Back to Garden for Nutrition Index