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Remaining Self-sufficiency Crops

Legumes Grains Seeds Broadleaf Squash Folates Root Crops Herbs Flowers Bees/Pollen Cover Crops Mushrooms Wild Weeds Electroculture Seawater Agriculture

These remaining crops are nutritious, but they have nutritional, processing, or flavor disadvantages. However, they are useful in that they provide a broad range of diversity for disease resistance and environmental adaptability.



Making tempeh will reduce anti-nutrients. Most legumes contain incomplete proteins and are best when consumed as a complement to grains. Some people are too sensitive to tolerate legumes, even after fermenting.

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea):

(Point of origin: South America, West Africa) Nutrition: High in resveratrol, biotin, niacin, and protein. Can cause an inflammatory reaction in the elderly. Sprouting Increases Resveratrol Resveratrol - Sensitive to heat, light & oxygen Roasting decreases disgestability Alabama A&M - boiling makes more digestible. Aflatoxin: World Oilseeds - Cooking peanut reduces lectins and aflatoxin. FAO - cooking peanut only partially reduces aflatoxin. Aflatoxin dangers and bio-controls. Holistic bio-controls: Include animals, good crop rotation, mulch, PH Commercial bio-controls: Although most research on commercial bio-controls is designed to prop up monocultures, this research can be instructive for those who want to take a more holistic approach: Use of nematodes Arizona - Non-toxic competitive strains Research Gate - Non-toxic competitive strains Academia - bio-control review. IJCEPR - bio-control review Cultivation: Harvest directly to a drying barn instead of a windrow to reduce aflatoxin risk. A few varieties will grow in cool weather climates. Peanut types Advantages: Grows well in loose sandy soils. Only requires moderate amounts of water. Has below ground protection from high wind, hail, etc. Disadvantages: Unless properly harvested, processed, and stored, it will harbor toxic aflatoxin from fungus. Requires cold storage. Performs best in dry areas. Varieties: These varieties can be grown in cool weather regions. Carolina Black - 110 days Tennessee Red - 110 days Spanish, Valencia - 120 days Southern Exposure - peanut Iowa State - peanut Peanuts in cold climates ******

Great Northern, White, and Navy Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris):

(Point of origin: South America) Advantages: Large beans are efficient and easy to harvest and process. For the young and healthy, these specific beans are some of the best sources of calcium. Good source of calcium for the elderly if sproated for 3 days and then boiled. Good flavor. Disadvantages: High levels of anti-nutrients Sources: Vermont Bean Seed, Johnny's Information:

    Phosphatidylserine - beans are very healthy for the brain

Soybeans (Glycine max):

(Point of origin: Asia) Advantages: drought resistant long storing, high protein (but out of balance) Disadvantages: high enzyme inhibitors and phytates. Fermented as tempeh, natto, miso, etc. may be the only form fit for human consumption. Protein profile is out of balance. Supplement with high tryptophan grain. Source: Seeds of Change, Territorial, Bountiful Gardens ******

Fava (Vicia faba var minor):

(Point of origin: Disputed) Advantages: Survives to 10 F. Disadvantages: Long growing season. Requires cool moist conditions. Varieties: Banner Bean, Broad Windsor Bean Sources: Territorial, Johnny's

    NCBI - fava will uptake and fix N at same time
    UCANR - best varieties

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum):

(Point of origin: Near East) NUTRITION: high protein low glycemic index Desi type is high in calcium Advantages: Requires slight drought conditions to set seed. Can regrow if frozen to the ground. Actually a vetch, so has different disease tendencies, and therefore good in crop rotation with other legumes. Disadvantages: Difficult to remove seed coat. Requires a long growing period. Requires warm dry weather to grow organically without fungicide. Variety: Myles (Desi type) ******

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.):

(Point of origin: Africa ) Nutrition: High in protein if allowed to fully mature. Advantages: Very drought and heat resistant. Quickly grows taproot over 8 feet deep. Disadvantages: Very susceptible to disease in high rainfall areas. Information: Purdue - cowpea ***************************************************


Most grains contain complete proteins which are slightly out of balance. They are even better when complemented with legumes. Grains are important as a carbohydrate source. They should only be grown on flat land in thick soils that will not erode from wind or water. They are classified below as dry, moderate, or wet weather grains. Some grains are slightly adaptable depending on variety.


Moderate Weather Grains:

Corn (Zea mays):

(Point of origin: Americas) Advantages: Excellant source of carbohydrates and anti-oxidants. Easy to manually harvest, dry, and store. Disadvantage: Many varieties are low protein, especially lysine and tryptophan. Corn pollen is allelopathic (Jimenez, et al. 1983). Breeding: Perhaps the most important development in corn breeding in a very long time. eOrganic - nitrogen fixing corn UWLACIS - nitrogen fixing cornUWLACIS - nitrogen fixing grains a> Plant Physiology - improving corn Green Haven - development of open pollinated varieties Mysterious origin of corn Nutrition: Requires fermentation with limestone to unlock niacin. Nixtamalization Soak, ferment, grind, and cook before feeding. Yellow indicates lutein and zeaxanthin. Orange indicates carotene. These are the colors most acceptable in the market in egg yolk. Red, blue, and purple anthocyanin is often missinterpreted as blood. But these varieties have more protein and store longer. If you want your eggs to store longer, feed these colors to your poultry. eOrganic - corn breeding for nutrition Quality Protein Maize FAO - corn and legume compared University of Guelph - animal nutrition Equipment: Pleasant Hill - corn sheller Varieties: Under less than ideal conditions (cold and wet), there are some open pollinated varieties that perform even better than some hybrids. These are mostly dent type: Truckers Yellow 70-85 days, heat tolerant Wapsie Valley 85-100 days, cold wet tolerant, tolerates poor soil mostly yellow, orange, some maroon Reids Yellow Dent 90-110 days, heat drought tolerant Golden Glow 100 days, yellow Henry Moore 110 days, yellow Glenn Beasley Red 115 days, mostly red, with some orange, and yellow Cornell - hierloom corn ***************** For years when there is high disease pressure, there are a few flinty varieties available which have the high disease resistance factors of the ancient flint corns and also have moderately higher yields. They also store much better. St. Clare Seeds - Indian Flint 105-110 days Wade's Giant Flint - 90 days ******************** Early corn: Early Alberta at 42-75 days, flint, yellow and white Yukon Supreme - 53-55 days, yellow Nuetta -57 days, mostly yellow, some maroon Orchard Baby - 60-65 days, yellow Fisher's - 70 days, yellow Painted Mountain - 70 days, flint, yellow, orange, and the rest of the rainbow Ashworth - 75 days, yellow (Early Golden Cross) Bantam - 60-76 days, yellow Early Riser - 80 days, yellow, orange, flint and dent Abenaki Calais - 85 days, flint, orange, yellow and the rest of the rainbow ******************* Orange varieties: Strubbes Orange - 97 days, orange, red, yellow Wallaces Mortgage Lifter - 130 days, orange, yellow, stalky ******************** Drought tolerant varieties: Hopi Blue Anasazi ******************** Growing some early, medium, and late using dent and flint varieties may provide some insurance during unpredictable weather and upredictable disease patterns. They will not cross as long as they bloom at different times. ****************************************

Wet Weather Grains:

Triticale (Triticale hexaploide Lart.):

(Point of origin: hybrid) Advantages: Cold and wet tolerant. Good as poultry feed. Disadvantage: Flavor depends on variety. Requires variety best for each region. Information: Purdue - Triticale

Flax (Linum usitatissimum):

(Point of origin: Eurasia) Nutrition: Very high in ALA oil. Ok for humans, but difficult to digest. Best fed to animals since they are more efficient at converting ALA to EPA and DHA. Feed only small amounts as it imparts a bad flavor when used in large amounts. Properties: Cool weather crop. Only harvest when fully mature or it will still contain cyanide. At maturity, cyanide moves into the roots. Extremely dependent on mycorrhizae. Very fibrous roots that decompose slowly. Cover crop: Excellent as a cover crop if planted very early in the spring. Plant 8 weeks before average last freeze, depending on variety. Better than many other cover crops because it allows sunlight penetration so soils can still warm up. Prevents weed growth with a dense root mat. If planted thick enough, weed suppression can last 4-6 months. Mow strips before planting. Encourages the beneficial Streptomyces lydicus which is a saprophytic Actinomycete. Never plant as a cover crop except in the very early spring since this is the only time it can compete with weeds. Planting: Broadcast thick and disc harrow or rake. Plant no more than 1.5 inches apart in all directions. Plant in early spring before weeds can sprout. Thick shallow roots will choke out weeds. Information: North Dakota State - flax Canada Flax Council Flax root Noble research Flax properties Flax Council - feed whole flax for increase omega 3 Springer - photosensitivity Planting: Iowa State Guidelines JSTOR - germinates at 8 C Riverdale Ag Service - plant at least 20 days before last frost Angelfire - Plant at least 20 days before last frost Source: Territorial

Spelt (Triticum aestivum var. spelta):

(Point of origin: Europe) Advantages: Cold and wet tolerant. Good as poultry feed. Disadvantage: Difficult to process. Information: Purdue - spelt

Hulless oats (Avena sativa):

(Point of origin: Europe) Preparation: Soak overnight before cooking Advantages: grows well in cool climates tolerates heavy rainfall more than other grains hulless so fairly easy to thresh Self pollinated. If harvested at milky stage it is a nerve and sexual stimulant. Disadvantage: very small grain only use a small amount as poultry feed since it has some anti-nutrients Source: Johnny's, Seedway, Welter Kaltenburg, Great Harvest Organics, Albert Lea Seed House, Bountiful Gardens ********* Also see rice ****************************************

Dry Weather Grains:

Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum):

(Point of origin: fertile crescent) Preparation: Soak overnight before cooking Advantages: greater chance of a crop before summer heat and drought set in. Moderate to high protein, yield is higher than oats. Self pollinated. Disadvantges: Be sure to grow the proper type for your environment. high gluten Nutrition: Great as poultry feed. Wheatgrass has very little nutrition. It isn't the wheatgrass that has unusual properties, it's the Tilletia caries that grows on the wheat grass that has phytohormones. Tilletia caries only grows under extremely hot moist conditions. Information: Mysterious origin of wheat Ancient Wheat Source: Johnny's, Seedway, Welter Kaltenburg, Great Harvest Organics, Albert Lea Seed House, Bountiful Gardens

Millet (several genus species):

(Point of origin: Asia) Advantages: Very drought tolerant. Will tolerate waterlogged soils for a time. Good as poultry feed. Disadvantage: Uneven ripening. Small grain. Information:

Camelina (Camelina sativa):

(Point of origin: central Asia ) Advantages: Drought tolerant Cold tolerant Disadvantges: Very small seed Do not plant in fields where flax is included in the rotation. Historically weedy in flax. Nutrition: High in omega-3 Information: Wikipedia USDA University of Minnesota

Amaranth (Amaranthus sp.):

(Point of origin: Central / South America ) Advantages: Very drought tolerant. Good as poultry feed if cooked. Good cover crop because of oxalate root exudate which frees up K. IAEA - oxalate exudates frees K Disadvantage: Should be cooked to remove as many of the anti-nutrients as possible for poultry feed. Not ideal for humans since cooking will not remove enough oxalates. Information: Purdue - Amaranth

Teff (Eragrostis tef):

(Point of origin: Africa) Advantages: Very drought tolerant. Will tolerate waterlogged soils for a time. Disadvantage: Very small seed. Information: Wikipedia ******** Grains not included because they are high in anti-nutrients which cannot be removed with heat: Rye, Barley, Sorghum, Quinoa Sorghum is better used as a disease break and mycorrhizal fungus encouragement. Sorghum is rattooning so it is better as a living mulch. **********************************************************


Sesame (Sesamum indicum):

Origin: Africa Nutrition: Extremely rich in calcium / magnesium, protein, other minerals, vitamins, etc. After fermentation and cooking, grind the seeds up to release the nutrients. Be sure to grow the large seeded variety; not the small confectionary type. Advantages: Very heat and drought tolerant. Pest and disease resistant. Stores extremely well for long periods. Disadvantages: Ultra high in oxalates and phytates. Requires fermentation and processing. Requires 90-120 frost free warm days. Information: Purdue - cultivation Complete removal phytates with lactobacillus ferment Wikipedia Seed: Kitazawa Seed Redwood Seeds Amazon Southern Exposure Hancock Seed *********************

Chia (Salvia hispanica):

Origin: Southwest America Nutrition: seed is very rich in Omega 3 Advantages: excellent for laying hens to increase levels in their eggs Disadvantages: Only grows well in dry regions with long growing periods. High in oxalates. Information: Chia for poultry Chia for cold climate USDA Plant Guide - Chia Univ. of Kentucky - Chia *******************

Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum):

Origin: Southern Europe Nutrition: Seed is very medicinal for liver. Anti-cancer. Advantages: Very easy to grow; annual or biennial. Nitrogen scavenger so excellant planted next to root crops with low nitrogen uptake. Too nutritious and easy to grow to pass up. Disadvantages: Eradication required in some areas. Can be toxic to cattle if nitrogen fertilizer used, since it accumulates nitrogen. More of a problem in conventional agriculture than organic. Mildly invasive, so must be managed responsibly. Harvest all seed immediately when ripe. Information: Wikipedia Invasive Plant Atlas Cab Direct - goats eat Silybum marianum Goats destroy Silybum marianum seed Thistle reduced by AMF Silymarin related to planting date ********************

Hemp (Cannabis sativa, indica):

(Point of origin: Asia) Advantages: Complete high protein, easy to grow High bio-mass, even on low fertility. Low water requirement. No gluten. moderate Omega-3 and high omega-6. Disadvantage: Keeping people out of your fields Information: Protein per acre - second only to soy Hemp history Medical Cannabis PubMed - apoptosis Natural News - Raw Cannabis Juicing Cannabis SCLabs - terpenes WebMD - CBD to treat addiction NCBI- CBD to treat addiction Terpenes that affect the brain: Cineole, Myrcene, Linolool, Delta 3 Careen, Terpinolene, Pinene, Limonene, Caryophyllene, etc. Boil flower for one hour. CBD - hippocampus CBD - improves brain blood flow BJP - entourage effect ***************************************************



Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum):

(Point of origin: Asia) Advantages: grows well under cool moist conditions gluten free Rich in rutin and quercetin. complete high protein excellent poultry feed great cover / catch crop quick maturing Weak mycorrhizal relationship Disadvantages: requires cool conditions during blooming high in enzyme inhibitors easily lodges in high wind low yield Sources: Bountiful Gardens *******

Borage (Borago officinalis):

(Point of origin: Mediterranean ) Advantages: Cooked greens taste like cucumber. Thick deep growing root. Direct sow seed early. Disadvantages: An annual that will resow itself easily and become weedy. Leaves are slightly toxic so do not eat too much. Never plant in the garden. Only grow in fields if you have animals to graze it and keep it under control. Nutrition: high in Vitamin C, A. fiber and flavor ***********************************************


Squash family (Cucurbitaceae sp.): (point of origin: the Americas) The squash listed below are susceptible to vine borer. nutrition: good source of B6. insect control: grow up on a wire cage to control the squash bug. keep away from habitation to avoid borers seed saving: species will not cross, but varieties within species will cross. Grow only one variety of each species if you save your own seed. properties: deer resistant Transplant to avoid hail and avoid peak vine borer egg season Storage varieties: Johnnys Seeds Hobby Farms - Jarrahdale, Marina De Chiogga, Triamble Harris Seeds - Queensland Blue Nutrition varieties: Kabocha Gold Nugget (C. maxima): Properties: AAS winner. Sweet potato substitute. Sources: Territorial Rouge Vif d' Etampes, Red Kuri, Golden Delicious, or Victor, etc. (C. maxima): properties: these are all red pumpkin squash the more red, the greater the possibility of lycopene Sources: Rare Seeds Catalog Hulless Seeded Pumpkin (C. pepo): Properties: The Styrian Hulless Pumpkin of Austria; grown for it's hulless seeds which are proven to help reduce DHT in men through a steriod called delta-7 stearine. Sources: Seedman ***********************************************


Mallow (Malva sp.): (point of origin: Europe, Asia) Nutrition: high in calcium / magnesium Preparation: eat cooked to remove oxalates. Disadvantages: can be invasive. root is high in difficult to digest inulin. Can accumulate too much nitrogen. Information: Oregon State - nitrogen accumulator Edible ****** Liliaceae family: Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis): (point of origin: Europe) nutrition: high in folate, B6 contains rutin high in purines. the more red, the greater the possibility of lycopene. preparation: eat raw properties: deer resistant varieties: Jersey Knight - especially good hybrid for cold regions Purple Passion - purple color Jacques Ma - red color propagation: by root division. self allelopathic so manure heavily or transplant regularly. sources: Thompson and Morgan, Territorial *******

Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioca):

(Point of origin: Europe) Nutrition: Very nutritious. Consumed by humans and animals for centuries in Europe. Preparation: wilting or cooking slightly will neutralize the formic acid Propagation: Cannot be dry stored. Best planted in pasture fields for occasional use. Perennial. Propagated by seed, cuttings, or root division. Sources: Johnnys Selected Seeds, Bountiful Gardens Richters Information: ELSEVIER - Native American Foods *******

Dandelion (Taraxacum sp.):

(Point of origin: Europe, Asia) Nutrition: Very nutritious; greens and root. Moderate amount of oxalate so do not eat too much. Not appropriate for dry storage. Propagation: Biennial. Invasive. Best planted in pasture fields for occasional use. Propagated by seed or root division. *******

Lambsquarters (Chenopodium berlandieri or album):

(Point of origin: Europe, Asia) Nutrition: Very nutritious; greens and seed. Very high in oxalate so boil the greens and discard water. Ferment and boil the seed. Propagation: Annual. Propagated by seed. Advantages: Very heat and drought tolerant. Very alkaline tolerant. Disadvantages: Invasive. Best planted in pasture fields since it can become weedy. Information: ELSEVIER - Native American Foods Weed Science Society of America Utah State University Identification: berlandieri for seed production U.C. Davis - Nettleleaf Goosefoot, odor Chenopodium **************** Spinach (Spinacea oleracea): (point of origin: Asia) Nutrition: high in calcium / magnesium High in vitamin K. Preparation: eat cooked to remove oxalates. Advantages: Germinates in cold. Plant 6 weeks before last frost. Good spring cover crop if grow one of the fast growing large leaf varieties. Disadvantages: High in oxalates. Varieties: Viroflay, Goliath, Giant **************************************************

Root Crops:

Potato (Solanum tuberosum):

(Point of origin: South America) Advantages: Ideal crop during climate instability. Northern Europe adopted potatoes because it prefers cool wet climates. Central Europe adopted potatoes because it is easy for an enemy to destroy a field of wheat, but not a field of potatoes. It will survive heavy hail, fire, late freeze, high wind, etc. Good as chicken, ducks, geese feed if cooked. Easy to manually harvest. Ranked high in carbohydrates per acre. In rotation, helps to reduce Symphylan. Can dehydrate and store for 10 years. Disadvantages: High alkaloid content. Nightshade family so very disease prone. Difficult for the elderly to digest. Cook before feeding to chickens, ducks, geese, etc. Nutrition: Very rich source of potassium which can be used to balance sodium intake. Storage: BYU - dehydration U.C. Davis - potato Univ of Nebraska - storage Univ of Idaho - storage Information: U.C. Davis - cultivation Disease Resistant Varieties: Rio Grande - high yield, 10 week dormancy, 59-65 days to maturity, drought tolerant Yukon Gem - high yield, 16 week dormancy, 80-90 days to maturity Elba - high yield, dormancy 4-10 weeks, 110-135 days to maturity, drought resistant Snowden - above average yield, 12 week dormancy, 90-120 days to maturity, requires consistant moisture Diseases and Varieties: North Carolina State - potato disease Wisconsin State - potato varieties Cornell - potato list Canada - potato disease Penn State - varieties Vegetable IPM Asia - variety diseases Yukon Gem Penn State - diseases Cornell - blight Alkaloids in potatoes. ********

Maca Root (Lepidium meyenii):

(point of origin: Andes) Nutrition: sexual tonic, radiation protection, endocannabinoid re-uptake inhibitor, steroidal, etc. Culture: Requires long cold wet growing season. Information: Available seed Hindawi FAAH Inhibitors ********

Sugar beet (Chenopodiaceae Beta vulgaris 'saccherifera'):

(point of origin: Europe) nutrition: trimethylglycene in root. leaves are high in oxalates, so only eat the root. culture: wind pollinate up to 5 miles ********

Ground Nut (Apios americana):

(Point of origin: North America)/h3 Advantages: Can propagate by root or seed. Taste is a cross between peanut and potato. Stores well dried. Perennial, so never plant in annual bed. Nitrogen fixation. Tolerates cool and warm weather. Disadvantages: Not drought tolerant. Not fully domesticated yet. Must harvest after long cold spell to reduce inulin (which is indigestible) to fructose. Not suitable as a staple. Nutrition: 11-16.5% protein. Increases mineral absorption. Anticarcinogenic antioxidents. Preparation: Must cook the root. Varieties: Until the University of Louisiana and Iowa State release their germplasm, current varieties are not very well developed yet. Information: Purdue Wikipedia Natural News - inulin converted to fatty acid ********

Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus):

(Point of origin: North America) Advantages: Can propagate by root or seed. Stores well dried. Drought tolerant. Perennial, so never plant in annual bed. Also good as a high mineral pasture forage crop or for hedgerows. Disadvantages: Must harvest after long cold spell to reduce inulin which is indigestible. Nutrition: 10% protein Preparation: Stores well dried. Information: Purdue ********

Parsnip (Apiaceae Pastinaca sativa):

(point of origin: Eurasia) NUTRITION: medicinal harvest before frosts before it turns to sugar DISADVANTAGE: Converts to sugar quickly, so do not eat too much at one time. ADVANTAGES: Flavor is a cross between carrot and vanilla. If harvested before frost converts the carbohydrates to sugars, this crop can be parboiled, dryed, and used as a source of simple carbohydrate during times of adverse weather. PROPAGATION: very insect and disease resistant SOURCE: Territorial, Bountiful Gardens ********

Salsify (Asteraceae tragopogon porrifolius):

(point of origin: Mediterranean) nutrition: converts to sugar quickly so don't eat much propagation: very insect and disease resistant source: Johnny's ********

Rutabaga (Brassica napus napobrassica group):

(Point of origin: hybrid from Europe) nutrition: B6 converts to sugar quickly so don't eat much. preparation: does not store well propagation: will cross with turnips source: Territorial, Bountiful Gardens ********

Radish ( Raphanus sativus ):

(Point of origin: hybrid from Europe) Nutrition: high in calcium. Leaves are rich in quercetin. Boil and use the water. a little too spicy to eat much red varieties are high in lycopene Tillage radish: Sodbuster ******** Sweet Potato (Convolvulaceae ipomoea batatas): (Point of origin: the Americas) Nutrition: Converts to sugar at a moderate pace, so a good source of carbohydrates. High in magnesium and potassium. High in vitamin E. Skin is high in B6. Contains a moderate amount of oxalate, so do not eat too much. Red leaf is lower in oxalate. Preparation: Cook and eat root with the skin. Properties: Very drought and disease resistant. Requires very warm weather. Varieties: Centennial Georgia Jet Information: Stokes Purple Sweet Potato - harder to digest University of Washington - sweet potato is very reponsive to endophytes *************************************************


Basil ( Ocimum basilicum ):

Origin: Asia Information: Anthocyanin Apoptosis Rosie - chicoric acid for healing Variety: Rosie - very dark purple vigorous open pollinated 65 days **********

Parsley (Petroselinum crispum):

Origin: East Mediterranean Properties: Biennial. Curly leaved variety most commonly used for medicinal reasons. Curly leaved parsley requires longer maturity to develope chemical strength. Flat or single leaf is stronger when young. Growing: Freeze and thaw seeds repeatedly to stratify seed coat. Soak seed 24 hours for sprouting. Start from seed in pots in spring for transplant. Germinates at 70 F. Plain-leaved varieties survive freezing better than the curly leaved varieties. Hardy to 10 F. Can transplant again in winter while dormant. Will bloom early next year. Medicinal Properties: Contains compounds which are either chemopreventive or prevent the spread of cancer cells: apigenin, myristicin, luteolin, chrysoeroil, falcorinol, terpines More oils in fresh form Do not eat too much because also very high in oxalates which binds calcium. ( rosemary, thyme, basal, oregano, and mint also contain terpines) Rich in glutathione. Information: Super Food Parsley Parsley - apoptosis **********

Celery(Apium graveolens):

Origin: Mediterranean Properties: Smallage or wild celery is the most medicinal; A. graveolens var. secalinum. Contains Phthalide which relaxes blood vessels and reduces stress hormones. Contains acetylenics which restricts cancer growth. Contains phenolic acids which blocks prostaglandins. Germinates 70 F. Celeriac is a relative of wild celery and contains some of the same compounds (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum). The advantage of celeriac is that it stores the longest. The most domesticated of the celery is Apium graveolens var. graveolens. It is the least medicinal but the most culinary. Information: Wikipedia Laurie Constantino - leaf celery Innvista On The Green Farms PubMed - apoptosis *********

Peppermint (Mentha piperita):

Origin: Central and Southern Europe Properties: Aromatherapy that is very soothing and calming. Source: Richters **************

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare):

Origin: Mediterranean Properties: Perennial. Rich in quercetin. Use bulb like celery. Has a licorice flavor that wonderfully compliments squash or sweet potatoes. Information: Purdue ************

Sassafras (Sassafras albidum):

Origin: North America Properties: Perennial understory tree. Flavor and aroma. Arbuscular. Suckers. Cretaceous survivor. Information: Missouri Botanical Garden **********

Spice Bush (Lindera bezoin):

Origin: North America Properties: Perennial understory tree. Flavor and aroma. Arbuscular. Suckers. Cretaceous survivor. Information: Missouri Botanical Garden **************************************************

Edible Flowers:

General reference:

There are too many edible flowers to list them all: Violas, Dianthus, Pansy (antibacterial), Pineapple sage (fruity), Gem marigold (tangerine), Chive blossom, Safflower, Squash, Sunflower, Chrysanthemum, Dandelion, Marigold (not very tasty), Lavender, Poppies, Zinnia, Arugula, Day Lilly (yellow, orange, not red, eat when very young before opens), geranium, etc.

         Thompson Morgan




         West Coast Seeds

         Colorado State


Bees and Pollen:

Wild Bees: More effective than honey bees. Wild bees Honey Bee Advantages: Improves pollination rates on the farm. Honey is a very effective way to encourage cattle to eat old dry hay. Improves meat flavor if honey is fed for 2 weeks before slaughter. Bees can be used to collect pollen which can be medicinal. Disadvantages: Anything other than rare very small amounts of honey is not healthy. Extreme promoter of tooth decay. Natural disease control: Michael Bush - allow bees to adapt Scientific Beekeeping Honey Bee Suite - dysentery Hops and bee study Paul Stamets - honey bees need fungus for a healthy immune system. Iridoid glycoside used for self medication - plantain, honeysuckle, and catnip. Microbes In northern habitats, grow the honeysuckle Lonicera fragrantissima. L. sempervirens is good but it requires bumblebees to chew open the base. The less cold tolerant L. purpusii is also good. Genetics: Practice extreme caution when purchasing bees. Be sure to purchase from a breeder close to your area so bee instincts for seasonal timing have been selected. An organically managed apiary would be ideal, otherwise the bees might not survive without treatments. Russian bees Russian Honey Bee Breeders Association Strachan Bees working with Ohio State - Carniolan and Caucasian Carniolan and Caucasian at Washington State Ontario hygienic and trachea mite resistance program Italians bred in Minnesota Diversity is also important. Diversity in Russian breeding Dean Stiglitz - genetics Debbie Delaney - genetics Hive Links: A top bar hive works great if your goal is to cheaply build a hive or you want to reduce heavy lifting: Back Yard Hive - DVD Managing the Top Bar Hive A horizontal Langstroth will provide the advantages of both systems and work great as long as you do not need to move your hives much. Ideal for farmers who just want to insure the pollination of their own crops. Bush - horizontal hives Hybrid horizontal hive If you are a professional beekeeper, moving hives around all the time, vertical Langstroth hives with foundation is probably the only way to go. But that form of bee husbandry is becoming increasingly difficult due to the spread of industrial agriculture. Foundationless - better for disease prevention; more organic: Wax is worth more than honey. Going without a foundation does require extra time up front to get a hive established, regardless of the hive type. But it is less work on the back end with no foundation to clean and manage. Bush Farms - foundation A comb guide is essential Small cell bees Overwintering: Insulation on the inside of a hive only provides extra material for fermentation inside the hive. Insulation is best kept outside the hive as long as the hive can still get air circulation. Supers placed on top of a horizontal hive, greatly increases the winter survival ability, since bees tend to move up in the winter. Winter clusters move up Winter hive dynamics Winter hive management Walk away hive splits: This is probably the quickest and easiest way to increase bee numbers if your primary goal is to insure adequate bees for crop pollination. Timing for temperature, heavy flow, and a diversity of pollen and nectar are critical for making this no fuss method work. Concentrate on improving your environment first by planting summer and fall flowering trees, shrubs, and perennial flowers. Honey Bee Suite - walk away split Honey Bee World - walk away split General information: Michael Bush - common issues Bee Source - hive comparison FAO - Bees will reuse harvested wax. Penn State Ohio State Beekeepers Association Pollen trap discussion - Sundance top mount Pollination links: Oklahoma State EcoBeneficial - wildflower pollen and nectar. Flowers that attract bees: These can compete with spring crop pollination, but having just a few of the spring blooming varieties around helps insure diversity and bee health. Summer and fall is especially useful when crops are not blooming. Unfortunately, many of the flowers that are the most attractive tend to be very weedy / invasive and also toxic, so animals cannot be used to control them. Here are a few perennials that can be managed, are easy to grow, and will grow in cold weather climates. Bees are attracted to yellow, blue, and white. They have a hard time seeing red flowers unless they were also ultraviolet. ************ SPRING Poplar is the source of temperate bee propalis Winterbloom (Hamamelis vernalis) - early spring bloom Persian Ironwood (Parrotia persica) - early spring bloom Paper bush (Edgeworthia chrysantha) - early spring bloom White Clover (Trifolium repens) - blooms spring Sweet Clover (Melilotus sp.) - blooms spring Cotoneaster dielsianus or splendens or arbusculus or atropurpureus - blight free blooms spring Blue Salvia (Salvia nemorosa) - blooms spring through fall Redbud (Cercis canadensis) - anthracnose Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas) - anthracnose Serviceberry (Amelanchier sp.) - fireblight ************ SUMMER Amur Maackia Tree (Maackia amurensis) - bloom July- Aug, zone 3 Basswood Tree - Tilia americana, Tilia cordata - zone 3, bloom June Japanese Lilac Tree (Syringa reticulata), - zone 3, bloom May-june Yellowwood Tree (Cladrastis lutea) - zone 4, bloom mid May Bee Bee Tree (Tetradium daniellii) - zone 4, July-Aug Golden Rain Tree (Koelreuteria paniculata) - zone 5, late spring bloom Sourwood Tree (Oxydendrum arboreum) - zone 5, blooms aug Lamb's Ears (Stachys byzantina) - blooms summer Lavender (Lavandula sp.) - zone 5, blooms summer Colorado State Cold hardy varieties Motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca) - blooms late summer Blanket Flower ( Gaillardia aristata ) - blooms all summer Ultraviolet Gaillardia Trumpet Vine (Campsis radicans) - blooms mid-summer, early fall Purple Coneflower ( Echinacea purpurea ) - blooms mid summer Russian sage (Perovskia atriplicifolia) - blooms late summer, slightly invasive. Borage (Borago officinalis) - very weedy. Never grow in the garden. Only grow in fields with foraging animals to help keep it under control. Blooms summer and fall. *********** FALL Japanese Pagoda Tree (Sophora japonica) - zone 5, bloom July-Sep Seven-son Flower Tree (Heptacodium miconioides) - bloom Aug-Sep, zone 5 Willowwood Viburnum Bush ( Viburnum rhytidophylloides x V. lantanaphyllum ) - blooms spring and fall Winterbloom Tree (Hamamelis virginiana) - early winter bloom All Hylotelephium are deer resistant, fall blooming, and possibly all ultraviolet. Sedum telephium Ice Plant ( Hylotelephium spectabile ) - from East Asia, white/pink/red blossom Autumn Joy ( Hylotelephium telephium x H. spectabile ) - H. telephium is from EurAsia Russian / Orange Stonecrop (Hylotelephium kamtschaticum) - from eastern Siberia, yellow/orange blossom Golden Root (Rhodiola rosea) - very cold tolerant New England Aster (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae) - blooms late summer through fall dark purple seems the most attractive **************************************************************** Trees for bees Univ of Wisconsin Ranking of Flowers Connecticut Academia - Cotoneaster Melissa Garden Richter's Pennsylvania State Utah State University Northwest blooming schedule Country Farm - bloom schedule ***************************** Mason Bees: Mason Bees ***************************** Rejects due to moth and butterfly attraction: Joe Pye Weed (Eupatorium purpureum) - blooms late summer / early fall Hyssop ( Hyssopus officinalis ) - blooms late summer not drought tolerant Anise Hyssop ( Agastache foeniculum ) - blooms summer through mid fall Veronica (Veronica sp.) - blooms summer *************************************************

Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.):

Origin: Scotland, Europe, Asia Nutrition: pollen is rich in androstenedione Mycorhizae: Will grow Cantharellus cibarius, Boletus edulis and Cantharellus lutescens mushrooms Medical: Nyishar - androsteroid benefits Varieties: - mongolica buds are more resinous USDA - Mongolian Scots Pine Pest and Disease Resistance: Planting Scots Pine in a very broad polyculture is the key to pest and disease resistance. Siberian / Russian varieties most resistance Balcanica and Altaica Brown spot - long needles more resistant Propagation: Agrobacterium stimulant **************************************************


Advantages: Will grow under low/no light conditions. Rich source of copper, selenium, zinc, and iron. Excrete acids that can break down toxic compunds. Trees and shrubs grow better with more types of fungus. Can break down inedible wood cellulose and turn it into edible yeast / fungus. Disadvantages: Growing mushrooms is not easy. Extreme allergies are common. Requires in depth knowledge to keep from poisoning yourself. Process: Many fungus grow best in mixed woods. They seem to need the advantages of several different types of trees and shrubs. Yet another argument for bio-diversity. Inoculate trees and shrubs just before planting with a slurry preparation or mycelium transplant from local mushrooms. General Information: Broad discussion of cultivating mushrooms: Cornell - Forest Mushroom Production and Forest Health Creating a New Earth Electronic stimulation mushroom growth Best trees Spawn cultivation: Only the DIY beginner links are listed here: MycoWeb North American Mycological Association Identification: Mycorrhizal Identification YouTube - top 10 YouTube - Dr. John Dawson YouTube - Peter Jordan Medical: Academia - medical mushrooms for cancer Dr. Hobbs - medical mushrooms Wild Mushrooms: American Mushrooms Spore Slurries and Mycelium Transplants: Mycellium Running University of Kentucky - mycelium transplant Erowid - mycelium transplant Google Groups - mycelium transplant Nutrition: Mushroom D2 is dubious Vitamin D3 more effective Photos: TCPermaculture ****************** Mycorrhizal Types: Growing these commercially is very difficult. But you may get enough for personal consumption and they will benefit your trees and shrubs. Truffles: Indigenous truffles may be more reliable and profitable. University of Kentucky Mycelium Running Univ Toronto - native American Truffles Truffles in the Pacific Northwest Iowa Truffles Native Truffles Truffles Worldwide Boletus sp: Defies reliable production. Wikipedia - many hosts University of Kentucky Mushroom collecting Mushroom Expert MykoWeb Coral: MycoWeb - Ramaria botrytis Mycorrhizas Wikipedia - Ramariopsis kunzei Wikipedia - Clavulina cristata Wikipedia - Ramaria formosa, poisonous Chanterelles: Wikipedia - Chanterelle Wikipedia - Cantharellus Mushroom Collecting - complex habitat MSSF - complex habitat Morels: University of Kentucky Wkipedia Saprophytic Morels Black Trumpets: Matsutake: University of Kentucky Chaga: Superfood Evolution - Chaga MyChaga University HedgeHog: Chicken of the Woods: Amathyst Deceiver: Wikipedia Google Lactarius indigo: ******************* Saprophytic Types: These are some of the medicinal types. Garden Giant: Stropharia rugosoannulata - used by bees to boost their immune system. Paul Stamets - honey bees need fungus for a healthy immune system. Turkey Tail: Wikipedia - Turkey Tail Mushroom Expert - Turkey Tail Shiitake: Center For Agroforestry North Carolina State Univ of Vermont ACES Maitake (Hen of the Woods): American Mushrooms Univ of Wisconsin Wikipedia Planting Maitake in the woods Reishi TCPermaculture DACRES NC Mushroom Field Forest Oyster Univ of Kentucky Enokitake Mycellium Running World Society for Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products Fungi for the People ***************************** Parasitic Types: Be careful about collecting these from the wild because you may bring back spores that can infect your orchard trees. Beefsteak Polypore (Fistulina hepatica): Lion's Mane(Hericium erinaceus): This mushroom will also grow as a saprophyte. Youtube Winter Mushroom (Brick Cap): Youtube ***************************************************

Wild Weeds:

Advantages: Historically, there have always been down cycles in food supply. It would be unrealistic to think that will never happen again. Wild foods and perennials that do not react strongly to changing weather patterns are among the most reliable ways to increase food security: grasses, clovers, dandelion, etc. A manual greens juicer is always good to have since the juices of many grasses, clovers, and leaves are edible as long as you do not eat much of the cellulose. Other common weeds that are edible: Kudzu, daylily, hickory, cattail, plantain, thistle, nettle, etc. Some of the more toxic ones are lambsquarters, pigweed, prickly pear, purslane, etc. The ones that can be propagated without seed tend to be the most reliable. Roots that can be propagated without seed are especially important: dandelion, ground nut, cattail, jerusalem artichoke, skirret, potato, cassava, sow thistle, etc. Widely fluctuating weather patterns will make seed unreliable. As long as your animals are also mainly forage based, you should have an increased chance of having sufficient food to survive whatever nature throws at you. Disadvantages: Not as tasty as domesticated varieties. Wild foods tend to be more toxic since they are not domesticated. Wild foods are also more susceptible to parasite contamination. Cooking is the best safety measure. They should only be consumed on an emergency basis. Links: Nutrients in mulberry leaves Eat the Weeds - mulberry leaves Eat the Weeds - grass. Eat the Weeds - clover. ***************************************************

Seawater Agriculture:

These techniques can be used even inland when water table salinity rises. Links: Mexico - seawater agriculture Eritrea - seawater agriculture Wadden Sea - saltwater potatoes Saline and wastewater in Israel ***************************************************

Cover Crops:

Lupine / Lupin (Lupinus sp):

(Point of origin: Americas / Mediteranean ) Nutrition: Seed is high protein (32-40%). Use low alkaloid lupin variety for animal feed. Use high alkaloid in cover crop mix. Not appropriate for pasture. Advantages: Can free up P for other plants using citrate and malate exudates. Fixes 100-150 lbs nitrogen from the air using Bradyrhizobium. Drought tolerant, but not heat tolerant. Quickly grows taproot over 6 feet deep. Annuals for flowers are rich in alkaloids which can help suppress disease and insects. Rolls down well. Disadvantages: Invasive in some areas. Very toxic alkaloids. Excess moisture, excess heat, and extreme PH make it susceptible to diseases and also increases toxins. Perennials may need afternoon shade. Low alkaloid seed does not always equal a low alkaloid crop. Variably mycorrhizal Endophytes of Lupin High alkaloid lupin for annual cover crops: Eden Brothers - Lupinous luteus Swallowtail Garden - L. mutabilis, hartwegii - L. succulentus Lupinus albus Lupinus angustifolius High alkaloid lupine perrenials for permaculture flowers: Eden Brothers Outside Pride American Meadows Low alkaloid lupin annuals for feed: Australia - low alkaloid Information: Cool weather crop for very early spring. White Lupin ( Lupinus albus) is the most cold tolerant. Lupinus angustifolius has the deepest root. Lupins occur as both annuals and perennials. Best in neutral or acid soil. Weakly mycorrhizal. Phytoremediation crop. Iowa State - SARE SARE - cover crops USDA - L. albus is cold tolerant Wikipedia Purdue Hindawi - PH affect on alkaloids *******

Monstrueux de Viroflay spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.):

( Point of origin: Asia Minor ) Advantages: Will germinate in extremely cold weather. Very large, so it makes an excellant cover crop. Oxalates used to free up soil phosphorous. Disadvantages: High in oxalates, which in the diet can bind with minerals. Boil and drain. Not very mycorrhizal. Information: Baker Creek Botanical Interests Victory Seeds Seeds Trust ***************************************************


This method of stimulating growth is probably only economic for high value crops such as marijuana, mushrooms, certain herbs, etc.

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