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Remaining Self-sufficiency Tree and Shrub Crops

Remaining Fruit
Nut Trees
Legume Trees
Beneficial Trees, Bushes, and Vines

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Remaining Fruit:

Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.):

(Point of origin: North America and Europe) Nutrition: Wild blueberries are very rich in polyphenols and pterostilbene. Low in the difficult to digest fructooligosaccharides. Unfortunately, domesticated blueberries are over selected for sweetness which comes from high levels of fructooligosaccharides. Properties: Most blueberry species and varieties require a moist environment and an acid soil. But there are a few that are more drought tolerant and some will tolerate a more neutral PH. Varieties: Some of the more drought tolerant varieties: Vaccinium stamineum Vaccinium pallidum Vaccinium darrowii Information: Forest Service Blueberry - wild has more polyphenols Vaccinium darrowii Hort Science Academia - Vaccinium stamineum USDA - Nocturn hybrid, cold hardy ********

Black currant (Ribes nigrum):

(Point of origin: Europe and Asia) Nutrition: Seed oil is high in preprocessed omega 3,6,9. 1 cup contains 80 mg omega-3 120 mg omega-6 High in anthocyanin. Black Consort - Properties: white pine rust immune, trim to single cane Sources: St. Lawrence Information: Omega 3 Cornell - gooseberry and currant ********

Blackberry (Rubus nigrobaccus):

(Point of origin: North America) Nutrition: 1 cup seeds contains 135 mg omega-3 268 mg omega-6 High in anthocyanin. Omega 3 Properties: one of the most disease and insect resistant fruits conifers (cone bearers) harbor disease mulch to protect from freezing grows well around water and under shade Varieties: Triple Crown: Very sweet but prone to sunburn. Good for fresh eating Erect, thornless Zone 5, good disease resistance Doyle - zone 5 , mainly good for jelly , thornless, trailing (needs trellis) , very disease resistant Obsidian - zone 7-9 , excellant flavor , thorny, trailing (needs trellis) , very disease resistant USDA - Obsidian blackberry Marion - zone 7-9 , excellant flavor , thorny, trailing (needs trellis) , good disease resistance Disease and other characteristics ratings: Oregan State - blackberry rating University of Arkansas - blackberry rating University of Arkansas - blackberry rating University of Arkansas - Navaho Sources: Millers Weeksberry Backyard Berry Plants **********

Fig (Ficus carica):

(Point of origin: western Asia) Nutrition: will not ripen further after picking, so wait until the stem itself darkens. high in quick releasing sugar, so don't eat much. the tree has latex so some people cannot tolerate the fruit. Properties: prefers a warm dry environment. cool weather varieties are available. Varieties: choose a variety which will ripen in your region. Brown Turkey: bears on new wood , has a small eye , ripens in cool weather Hardy Chicago: bears on new wood , has a small eye , ripens in cool weather Sources: Miller, Raintree, One Green World ********

Plum (Prunus sp.):

(Point of origin: Fertile Cresent) Nutrition: Very rich in anti-oxidants High in anthocyanin. Properties: Slightly acidic Tastes best after touched by frost Very cold hardy Varieties: President Plum - Prunus domestica, zone 5, late bloom very disease resistant , needs pollinator (Merryweather) slightly more drought tolerant Connecticut Ag Ext Station - plum diseases Royal Horticultural Society President Plum - vulnerable to canker if sun scalded Growing Prunes Merryweather Damson - Prunus insititia, zone 4 self fertile, late bloom better for jam than drying not drought tolerant Guide to Damsons Damsons Wiki Plum Booklet Kuban Delight - Prunus salicina zone 5b, self fertile very disease resistant Pollination: Dave's Garden Orange Pippin Orange Pippin - pollination checker Grafted plums onto Prunus americana can be slightly more moisture tolerant: Such as Mount Royal (Prunus domestica). Source: St. Lawrence Nurseries There are many other plum varieties (Prunus domestica), that are very anti-oxidant rich, but most only grow well in extremely dry desert environments, with a moderate temperature. Exceptions are AU Roadside and AU Rosa. Training: Fan Training Plum and rootstock *************

Honey berry (Lonicera caerulea var. emphyllocalyx or L. edulis var. Kamtschatica):

University of Saskatchewan Fruit Breeding Program Haskap - tetraploid, latitude maps About Haskap ********

Tibetan Goji (Lycium chinense):

Nutrition: rich in zeaxanthin Nightshade family so better for animals Properties: some varieties zone 3 height 3-12 feet Invasive excellant for poultry Purdue ********

Chinese Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum):

Nutrition: rich in zeaxanthin Nightshade family so better for animals Properties: zone 6 height 3-12 feet Invasive excellant for poultry Purdue ********

American Persimmon ((Diospyros virginian):

(Point of origin: American ) Nutrition: rich in zeaxanthin Properties: American persimmons are dioecious; each tree produces either male or female flowers and requires a mate, or pollinator, nearby. Hexaploids’ grow in cold climate areas further north where teraploids could not survive. Some wild American cultivers can be grown in zone 3. Drought and moisture tolerant. Very disease resistant. Varieties: Early Golden - zone 5, large early fruit. Szukis - zone 5, large early fruit. Meader - hardy to 30 degrees below zero F. Source: Oikos ************

Aronia or Black Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa):

Nutrition: High in anthocyanin. Properties: astringent , improves once processed. Some varieties are blue. Very disease resistant. Source: Sandusky Valley Plant Nursery, St. Lawrence Nursery, Millers, Raintree *******

Elderberry (Sambucus nigra):

(Point of origin: Europe ) Advantages: Medicinal. Fruit leather, jams, jelly. High in anthocyanin. Has extrafloral nectaries that flow in the summer when very little is blooming. Disadvantages: Potentially toxic to poultry and turkeys due to cyanide. Accumulates excessive nitrates. Info: Sacred Earth - Elderberry Elderberry - cooking required USDA Purdue University Elderberry Jelly Elderberry Poisoning Colorado State - Nitrate accumulation New Mexico State - Nitrate accumulation ****************************************************

Apricot (Prunus armeniaca):

(Point of origin: Asia) Advantages: the more red, the greater the possibility of lycopene Occassional pit kernals can be healthy. Most drought tolerant on apricot rootstock. Exra-floral nectaries in very early spring for beneficial insects. Disadvantages: Tends to bloom too early Properties: will not continue to ripen after harvest Varieties: Hargrand and Harcot - zone 5, late bloom Prunus armeniaca, flavorful Briana - zone 3, very flavorful Prunus mandshurica or siberica Idaho - Fruit Trees Garden Guides - Fruit Trees Canada - Apricot Cultivars North Dakota - Manchurian North Dakota - trees Montana - stone fruit Training: Fan Training Apricot and rootstock Rootstock: Apricot rootstock Sources: Oikos **************

Peach (Prunus persica):

(Point of origin: Asia) Disadvantages: Very difficult to grow consistently, except in dry areas. Advantages: the more red, the greater the possibility of lycopene. Peaches are self-fruitful Exra-floral nectaries in very early spring for beneficial insects. Disease Resistant Zone 5 Varieties: Harken Harson Venture Harrow Beauty Links: Canada Oregon Cornell North Carolina Training: Fan Training Peach Rootstock: Peach rootstock Peach Rootstock alternatives GardenWeb - Rootstock alternatives *******

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba):

(Point of origin: eastern North America ) Advantages: Tropical fruit taste. Very disease resistant. Disadvantages: Cannot be dried or stored except as fruit leather. Info: Pawpaw Pawpaw propagation Source: Oikos ********

Black Raspberry (Rubus occidentalis):

(Point of origin: North America) Nutrition: astoundingly nutritious, seedy. High in anthocyanin. Disadvantages: Even the most resistant varieties are still very disease prone Cultivation: Well drained soil, never water from overhead prefers afternoon shade To overcome disease, grow in semi-wild setting as desribed below: The Contrary Farmer Varieties: JEWEL - good overall disease resistance, good yield MUNGER - good fungal resistance, poor cold hardiness Wild - potential for superior flavor *****************************************************

Nut Trees:

Hickory (Carya spp.):

(Point of origin: North America) Nutrition: Similar to pecan Properties: Takes decades to bear nuts. Grafting can greatly speed up the process. Very long taproot so very drought tolerant. Prefers high rainfall areas. Very disease and insect resistant. Varieties: Shagbark hickory (C. ovata) Shellbark hickory (C. laciniosa) Badgersett Hybrid Information: Kentucky Woodland Magazine University of Missouri Badgersett - hybrid hickory and hazelburt ********

Oak (Quercus spp.):

(Point of origin: North America) Nutrition: High in oil. Medium levels of complete protein. High tannin that must be leached. Properties: Acorn finished pork has a unique flavor. Very disease resistant. Nuts are susceptible to insects. Hybrids: White oak hybrids are generally the best tasting. These are precocious heavy annual bearing dwarfs that may not quite be small enough for industrial production but they are good enough to start planting on slopes and poor sites. Perfect for poultry and hog feed. Morse - BurXChestnut, BurXSwamp, BurXEnglish, Bimundor Rhora's - Sargent 5, Bimundor Oikos Nut Cracker Nursery Native Varieties: Low tannin varieties: Chinkapin Dwarf - Quercus prinoides Bears early and every year. Chinkapin White Oak - Quercus muehlenbergii Bears every year. Bur White Oak - Quercus macrocarpa ( Kreider, Ashworth ) Bears every 2-3 years. Water tolerant. Swamp White Oak - Quercus bicolor Bears every 3-5 years. Water tolerant. Common White Oak - Quercus alba Bears every 4-10 years; light production every year. *********

Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba)

Advantages: Very ancient tree species which survives even the most adverse conditions. Improves soil enzyme levels. Very insect and disease resistant. Useful in hedgerows and mixed into orchards. High protein nuts are edible after boiling. Tolerates occasional grazing and is used for bonsai. Capable of going dormant rapidly. Hardy to zone 3. Disadvantages: Fruit is very stinky. Nuts are toxic unless cooked. Information: Soil enzyme levels Survives nuclear blasts. ****************************************************

Legume Trees:

Siberian Pea Shrub (Caragana arborescens):

Advantages: A member of the legume family, nitrogen-fixing extremely hardy. The "peas" are reportedly 36% protein Use for animal or poultry feed. Must be cooked before feeding to animals. Disadvantages: Seeds are very small. Not as good a permaculture legume as honey locust. Can become invasive if not harvested thoroughly. Best to plant sterile versions: Sutherland, Lorbergii Information: PURDUE UNIVERSITY - Siberian Pea USDA Plants For a Future Source: St. Lawrence *******

Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia):

Advantages: High nitrogen fixation. Excellent to strenthen hedgrows. Fast growing. Very cold hardy. Disadvantages: Toxic to horses. Invasive. Small seed. Can overshade other species. Shipmast strain is mostly sterile. Information: Woodpeckers and wheelbugs are natural enemies of borers. Shipmast variety - mostly sterile Shipmast is borer resistant USDA - interplanting discourages pests Beneficial nematodes to prevent borers Source: Shipmast is hard to find. ****************************************************

Beneficial Trees, Bushes, and Vines:

Silverscape (Elaeagnus angustifolia x E. commutata):

Advantages: High nitrogen fixation. Drought tolerant. Very cold hardy. Excellent to strenthen hedgrows. Disadvantages: Most Elaeangus sp. are very invasive. Silverscape appears to be a sterile hybrid which should not be invasive. Information: Jefferies Nursery USDA trials Source: Jefferies ********

Paulownia (Paulownia sp.):

Advantages: High nitrogen fixation. Fast growing. Drought tolerant. Excellent to strenthen hedgrows or for alley cropping. Disadvantages: Most Paulownia are very invasive. There are sterile selections which will not be invasive. Only hardy to zone 5. Witches broom. Best in dry conditions. Information: Dragon Trees - sterile Paulownia Fast Growing Trees - sterile Paulownia Agricultural use in China Forestry Diseases of Paulownia - best in dry conditions Source: Fast Growing Trees, Dragon Trees ********

Hops (Humulus lupulus):

(Point of origin: Northern hemisphere) Properties: Produces acids that are antibiotic and insecticidal. Useful against honey bee varoa mite. Varieties: For high beta acids grow Southern Cross, Mt. Hood, or Pride of Kent. Variety descriptions Growing horizontally: University of Kentucky Yield drops but sometimes quality rises Information: Wikipedia Herbalgram blooming requirements Rutgers Organic Limitations of beta acid *********

Willowwood Viburnum ( Viburnum rhytidophylloides x V. lantanaphyllum )

Properties: If managed properly, blooms in spring and again in the fall. Mulch heavily, full sun, never use nitrogen fertilizer. Fall blooms are especially attractive to beneficials. Information: FloriData - Willowwood Missouri Botanical Garden - Willowwood *********

Tulip Tree (Liriodendron tulipifera)

Properties: In moist regions grows well to zone 5. Some cultivars have large amounts of nectar in their blossoms. Very attractive to parasitics. Information: Tulip Tree Back to Garden for Nutrition Index