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Remaining Self-sufficiency Tree and Shrub Crops

Remaining Fruit
Nut Trees
Legume Trees

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Remaining Fruit:

Black currant (Ribes nigrum):

(Point of origin: Europe and Asia) Nutrition: Seed oil is high in preprocessed omega 3,6,9. 1 cup contains 80 mg omega-3 120 mg omega-6 High in anthocyanin. Properties: Ripens late unevenly Prefers afternoon shade. Black Consort - Properties: white pine rust immune, trim to single cane Sources: St. Lawrence Information: Omega 3 ********

Blackberry (Rubus nigrobaccus):

(Point of origin: North America) Nutrition: 1 cup seeds contains 135 mg omega-3 268 mg omega-6 High in anthocyanin. Omega 3 Properties: one of the most disease and insect resistant fruits conifers (cone bearers) harbor disease mulch to protect from freezing grows well around water and under shade. Ripens early and unevenly Varieties: Triple Crown: Very sweet but prone to sunburn. Good for fresh eating Erect, thornless Zone 5, good disease resistance Doyle - zone 5 mainly good for jelly thornless, trailing (needs trellis) very disease resistant Obsidian - zone 7-9 excellant flavor thorny, trailing (needs trellis) very disease resistant USDA - Obsidian blackberry Marion - zone 7-9 , excellant flavor , thorny, trailing (needs trellis) , good disease resistance Disease and other characteristics ratings: Oregan State - blackberry rating University of Arkansas - blackberry rating University of Arkansas - blackberry rating Missouri Botanical Garden - Navaho University of Arkansas - blackberries Sources: Weeksberry Backyard Berry Plants **********

Fig (Ficus carica):

(Point of origin: western Asia) Nutrition: will not ripen further after picking, so wait until the stem itself darkens. high in quick releasing sugar, so don't eat much. the tree has latex so some people cannot tolerate the fruit. Properties: prefers a warm dry environment. cool weather varieties are available. ripens late Varieties: choose a variety which will ripen in your region. Brown Turkey: bears on new wood , has a small eye , ripens in cool weather Hardy Chicago: bears on new wood , has a small eye , ripens in cool weather Sources: Raintree, One Green World Information: Pinch figs to force fruiting ********

Plum (Prunus sp.):

(Point of origin: Fertile Cresent) Nutrition: Very rich in anti-oxidants High in anthocyanin. Properties: Slightly acidic Tastes best after touched by frost ripens late Very cold hardy Varieties: President Plum - Prunus domestica, zone 5, late bloom very disease resistant , needs pollinator (Merryweather) slightly more drought tolerant Connecticut Ag Ext Station - plum diseases Royal Horticultural Society President Plum - vulnerable to canker if sun scalded Growing Prunes Merryweather Damson - Prunus insititia, zone 4 self fertile, late bloom better for jam than drying not drought tolerant Guide to Damsons Damsons Wiki Plum Booklet Kuban Delight - Prunus salicina zone 5b, self fertile very disease resistant Pollination: Dave's Garden Orange Pippin Orange Pippin - pollination checker Grafted plums onto Prunus americana can be slightly more moisture tolerant: Such as Mount Royal (Prunus domestica). Source: St. Lawrence Nurseries There are many other plum varieties (Prunus domestica), that are very anti-oxidant rich, but most only grow well in extremely dry desert environments, with a moderate temperature. Exceptions are AU Roadside and AU Rosa. Training: Fan Training Plum and rootstock *************

Honey berry (Lonicera caerulea var. emphyllocalyx or L. edulis var. Kamtschatica):

Early ripening. Tetraploid University of Saskatchewan Fruit Breeding Program About Haskap ********

Tibetan Goji (Lycium chinense):

Nutrition: rich in zeaxanthin Nightshade family Properties: some varieties zone 3 height 3-12 feet Invasive excellant for poultry Ripens late. Purdue ********

Chinese Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum):

Nutrition: Rich in zeaxanthin Nightshade family Properties: zone 6 height 3-12 feet ripens midseason unevenly Invasive excellant for poultry Purdue ********

American Persimmon (Diospyros virginian):

(Point of origin: American ) Nutrition: rich in zeaxanthin Properties: American persimmons are dioecious; each tree produces either male or female flowers and requires a mate, or pollinator, nearby. Hexaploids grow in cold climate areas further north where teraploids could not survive. Some wild American cultivers can be grown in zone 3. Drought and moisture tolerant. Very disease resistant. Late ripening Hardwood Will not tolerate shade Varieties: Early Golden - zone 5, large early fruit. Szukis - zone 5, large early fruit. Meader - hardy to 30 degrees below zero F. Source: Oikos Info: Savanna Institute ************

Aronia or Black Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa):

Nutrition: High in anthocyanin. Properties: Astringent , improves once processed. Mid season harvest Some varieties are blue. Very disease resistant. Source: Sandusky Valley Plant Nursery, St. Lawrence Nursery, Millers, Raintree ********

Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis):

(Point of origin: North America) Advantages: Medicinal. Fruit leather, jams, jelly. High in anthocyanin. Has extrafloral nectaries that flow in the summer when very little is blooming. Ripens mid season unevenly Disadvantages: Accumulates excessive nitrates. Potentially toxic to poultry due to cyanide. American variety is very low in cyanide precursors. Info: Savannah Institute - Elderberry cultivation University of Missouri Sacred Earth - Elderberry Elderberry - cooking required USDA Purdue University Elderberry Jelly Elderberry Poisoning Colorado State - Nitrate accumulation New Mexico State - Nitrate accumulation Sources: Gurneys - Elderberry Logees - Elderberry One Green World - Elderberry ********

Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.):

(Point of origin: North America and Europe) Nutrition: Wild blueberries are very rich in polyphenols and pterostilbene. Low in the difficult to digest fructooligosaccharides. Unfortunately, domesticated blueberries are over selected for sweetness which comes from high levels of fructooligosaccharides. Properties: Most blueberry species and varieties require a moist environment and an acid soil. But there are a few that are more drought tolerant. PH of at least 5.5 required. Ripens early unevenly Varieties: Some of the more drought tolerant varieties: Vaccinium stamineum Vaccinium pallidum Vaccinium darrowii Information: Univ of Minnesota Forest Service Blueberry - wild has more polyphenols Vaccinium darrowii Hort Science Academia - Vaccinium stamineum USDA - Nocturn hybrid, cold hardy **************************************************

Apricot (Prunus armeniaca):

(Point of origin: Asia) Advantages: the more red, the greater the possibility of lycopene Occassional pit kernals are ok. Most drought tolerant on apricot rootstock. Extra-floral nectaries in very early spring for beneficial insects. Disadvantages: Tends to bloom too early Properties: will not continue to ripen after harvest Ripens early Varieties: Hargrand and Harcot - zone 5, late bloom Prunus armeniaca, flavorful Briana - zone 3, very flavorful Prunus mandshurica or siberica Idaho - Fruit Trees Garden Guides - Fruit Trees Canada - Apricot Cultivars North Dakota - Manchurian North Dakota - trees Montana - stone fruit Training: Fan Training Apricot and rootstock Rootstock: Apricot rootstock Sources: Oikos **************

Peach (Prunus persica):

(Point of origin: Asia) Disadvantages: Very difficult to grow consistently, except in dry areas. Advantages: the more red, the greater the possibility of lycopene. Peaches are self-fruitful Exra-floral nectaries in very early spring for beneficial insects. Ripens mid season Disease Resistant Zone 5 Varieties: Harken Harson Venture Harrow Beauty Links: Canada Oregon Cornell Training: Fan Training Peach Rootstock: Peach Rootstock alternatives GardenWeb - Rootstock alternatives *******

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba):

(Point of origin: eastern North America ) Advantages: Tropical fruit taste. Very disease resistant. Disadvantages: Cannot be dried or stored except as fruit leather. Late ripening Info: Purdue Source: Oikos ********

Black Raspberry (Rubus occidentalis):

(Point of origin: North America) Nutrition: astoundingly nutritious, seedy. High in anthocyanin. Disadvantages: Even the most resistant varieties are still very disease prone Cultivation: Well drained soil, never water from overhead prefers afternoon shade Early ripening To overcome disease, grow in semi-wild setting as desribed below: The Contrary Farmer Varieties: JEWEL - good overall disease resistance, good yield MUNGER - good fungal resistance, poor cold hardiness Wild - potential for superior flavor ***************************************************

Nut Trees:

Chestnut (Castanea sp.): (Point of origin: America, Europe, Asia) Nutrition: Historically, chestnut used to be a staple crop. High level of carbohydrates with a low level of complete protein. Properties: Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is the most resistant to the blight, though not immune. Zones 4-9. late ripening Source: Be sure to order from a source close to you for proven adaptation. Badgersett - hybrids in Michigan Forest Agriculture - hybrids in Wisconsin Red Fern Farm - Iowa Rhora's - hybrids in Ontario Route 9 Cooperative - hybrids in Ohio Nolin River Nursery - hybrids in Kentucky Chestnut Hill - Dunstan hybrid in Florida Burnt Ridge - Washington chesnuts West Coast - blight is rare Storage: For animal consumption, separate bad nuts by floating them in water. Then shell and dry until hard as dried beans. Can store for long periods if very dry. Soak overnight, crush, and cook slightly before feeding to animals. For human consumption: Post Harvest Badgersett Information: US Forest Service Missouri Nut Growers New York State Horticultural Society Research Gate Mud Pack: A permanent mud pack with living roots is more effective than a temporary mud pack. Be sure to choose soil from a healthy forest setting so it has the full rhizosphere of organisms (not compost). Grape is a very good choice as many varieties will produce aerial roots and they will switch from endo to ectomycorrhizal once mature and provide the full rhizosphere of protection. Most grape varieties will grow in shade but may not fruit much. Mud pack Hardy succulents Outdoor living wall Research: University of Missouri ********

Oak (Quercus spp.):

(Point of origin: North America) Nutrition: High in oil. Medium levels of complete protein. High tannin that must be leached. Properties: Acorn finished pork has a unique flavor. Very disease resistant. Nuts are susceptible to insects. Ripens late. Hybrids: White oak hybrids are generally the best tasting. These are precocious heavy annual bearing dwarfs that may not quite be small enough for industrial production but they are good enough to start. planting on slopes and poor sites. Perfect for poultry and hog feed. Morse - BurXChestnut, BurXSwamp, BurXEnglish, Bimundor Rhora's - Sargent 5, Bimundor Oikos Nut Cracker Nursery Native Varieties: Low tannin varieties: Chinkapin Dwarf - Quercus prinoides Bears early and every year. Chinkapin White Oak - Quercus muehlenbergii Bears every year. Bur White Oak - Quercus macrocarpa ( Kreider, Ashworth ) Bears every 2-3 years. Water tolerant. Swamp White Oak - Quercus bicolor Bears every 3-5 years. Water tolerant. Common White Oak - Quercus alba Bears heavy every 4-10 years; light production every year. *********

Hickory (Carya spp.):

(Point of origin: North America) Nutrition: Similar to pecan Properties: Takes decades to bear nuts. Grafting can greatly speed up the process. Very long taproot so very drought tolerant. Prefers high rainfall areas. Very disease and insect resistant. Ripens mid season unevenly Varieties: Shagbark hickory (C. ovata) Shellbark hickory (C. laciniosa) Badgersett Hybrid Information: Kentucky Woodland Magazine University of Missouri Badgersett - hybrid hickory and hazelburt *********

Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba)

Advantages: Very ancient tree species which survives even the most adverse conditions. Improves soil enzyme levels. Very insect and disease resistant. Useful in hedgerows and mixed into orchards. High protein nuts are edible after boiling. Tolerates occasional grazing and is used for bonsai. Capable of going dormant rapidly. Hardy to zone 3. Ripens late Disadvantages: Fruit is very stinky. Nuts are toxic unless cooked. Information: Survives nuclear blasts. ***************************************************

Legume Trees:

Honey Locust (Gleditsia triacanthos): (Point of origin: North America) Advantages: Large high protein bean. Excellent as poultry or hog feed. Ideal planted below berms. Also makes good forage. Not toxic like Black Locust. Ripens late. Zone 3. Drought tolerant if grown on deep soil where it can send down a deep tap root. Adapts to high water table. USDA Forest Service Disadvantage: Slightly invasive if not already native. These large seeded varieties are much less invasive. Not easily blown by wind or eatin by birds. Propagation: Bud graft in May/June using scionwood taken from this year's growth. Varieties: Hershey is a very large pod variety with huge high protein seeds. Rolling River Nursery - grafted Hershey Hidden Spring Nursery - grafted Hershey Wildlife Growers - grafted Hershey J.L. Hudson Seeds - cold tolerant Honey Locust Oikos - Honey Locust Nitrogen fixation: The Honey Locust is such an ancient tree, that it may be fixing nitrogen using early primitive methods, instead of the more modern root nodules. U. of Virginia - Honey Locust nitrogen research Purdue - Rhizobial relationships Wikipedia - nitrogen fixation Silvopasture: VTForages - Silvopasture overview, Honeylocust Forest Connect - Silvopasture examples, Honeylocust University of Virginia Varieties: List of known cultivars Honey Locust varieties History: History of the honey locust. University of Virginia - more recent history Information: USDA Forest Service - Honey Locust interplanting Bartlett - health care recommendations USDA Forest Service - environment ********

Siberian Pea Shrub (Caragana arborescens):

Advantages: A member of the legume family, nitrogen-fixing, extremely hardy. The "peas" are reportedly 36% protein Use for animal or poultry feed. Must be cooked before feeding to animals. Prefers afternoon shade. Disadvantages: Seeds are very small. Not as good a permaculture legume as honey locust. Can become invasive if not harvested thoroughly. Best to plant sterile versions: Sutherland, Lorbergii Information: PURDUE UNIVERSITY - Siberian Pea USDA Plants For a Future Source: St. Lawrence Back to Garden for Nutrition Index