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Self Sufficient Energy Production

This web site is mainly focused on cold weather temperate climate zones. Even energy generation and utilization are affected by cold weather. Therefore, this section emphasizes the technologies and methods which work best in cold climates. Some warm climate strategies are discussed but only in general. The first and most important step to being energy self-sufficient is to require as little energy as possible.

Green Housing
Passive Cooling
Passive Solar Heating
Root Cellar

The next step to achieve energy self sufficiency is to concentrate on maximizing your use of low tech solutions. Mixing the low tech with high tech can allow the strengths of each to compliment each other.


Wood
Drying Hay With Renewables
Wind Energy

It is critical to have a reliable method to generate and store energy on the farm in a form that can easily be utilized later. There are risks associated with total reliance on the electrical grid and commercial energy distribution systems.

Hydrogen / Methane Gas Engines
Hydrogen Complimentary Technology
Bike Car

Some technologies work better in warm weather. But sometimes they can have an effective short term niche such as summertime usage.

Solar Energy

Some problems can only be solved by community level cooperation. Community self sufficiency is as important as individual self sufficiency.

Animal Fat and Offal as Feedstock for Gasification
Algae Bio-Fuel
Animal Fat as Diesel Fuel
Remaining Bio-Fuels
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Green Housing:

The best way to be self sufficient is to require as little energy as possible.

In cool climates, thermal mass on inside; warm climates on the outside
The Natural Home - zero energy
Fine Home Building - foundation insulation comparison
Oak Ridge National Lab - foundation insulation
Rice University - warm climate green roofs
Conservation Technology - green roof
Stanford - Amory Lovins lectures on energy efficiency
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Passive Cooling:

Absorption, evaporation, and thermal technology is getting better adapted for small scale home application. With outside window shutters in place, a double roof, foundation insulation, passive vents at the highest points to vent heat, passive coolers at living level, and ground heat exchange feeding into the coolers, a home can be kept fairly cool.

Absorption and thermal coolers
Absorption unit design
Evaporative and absorption coolers
Double Roof
Wikipedia - ground heat exchange
Zero Homes - ventilation
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Passive Solar Heating:

With indoor night time window shutters and curtains, rocket stoves tied into indoor thermal mass, foundation insulation, ground cold exchange, thermal banking, and angled multi-pane windows, an airtight home can be kept fairly warm.

Passive Solar - east/west axis, thermal mass
Wikipedia - sun angle, shutters
Wikipedia - ground cold exchange
Zero Homes - ventilation
Thermal Banking
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Root Cellar:

A root cellar is indispensable during harvest time. It allows you to store the harvest until you have time to get to the processing and drying. You may need to have additional cooling until the winter air is cold enough to pump in and keep it at 33 F.


Root Cellar 
Four Season Harvest 
Squidoo 
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Wood:

ADVANTAGES
1. Low tech and reliable

DISADVANTAGES
1. Deforestation

A wood burning stove is still the cheapest and most reliable source of energy. A rocket stove can even burn animal fat, nut shells, etc.


RocketStove.org
Rocket Stove
Richsoil
Rocket Stove Temperatures
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Drying With Renewables:

Chopped Hay and Forage Harvester:

Hay was originally baled so it could be easily transported. If the hay is fed on farm, there is no reason to bale. A cheap pull type forage harvester can cut grass and blow it into a trailer. It can then be conveyed into the solar drying barn.

Forage Harvester
North Dakota State - chopped hay movement
History of hay drying
Chopped Hay Artificial Drying:
University of Florida - chopped hay drying
Drying Barn Research:

A simple sheet metal barn with installed fans can provide a very cheap drying environment for hay, fruit, food, etc.


Review of Solar Drying
Solar Energy Drying Systems - solar chimney

EXAMPLES:
Solar Drying Barn
Solar Greenhouse
Drying barn - pulling and pushing air fans
Loose hay movement
DIY Solar Dehydrator

Summertime is the cheapest time to dry for hay and grain using mostly solar heat and some electricity. To dry fruit in the fall, use electricity for heat if available. Wind power usually picks up in the fall. As a last resort, place rocket stoves under the solar heating unit for efficient sustained heat generation during fall / winter when there is little solar energy available.

Solar and wood fuel hay drying
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Wind Energy:

ADVANTAGES
1. Can be used to make hydrogen.
2. Feed and sell energy back into the grid.
3. Usually available during the time of year when it is needed most.
4. Cold climate regions often have high wind speeds.
5. True cost of energy is being hidden. Once the true cost
   becomes clear, then this technology will be profitable.
6. Works well in rural areas.
Small Wind Physics
Makani - high altitude wind generator

DISADVANTAGES
1. Small wind turbines are inefficient and immature.
Small Wind Certification
2. Scars the landscape and can be noisy if not properly maintained.
3. Summers are usually low wind periods.
4. Electrical field contamination.
5. Not very good for urban areas.
Solacity
Urban Wind
6. New technology has obstacles.
CleanTechnica

HYDROGEN GENERATION LINKS

H2 Energy Renaissance - electrolysis for hydrogen generation
Solvay - hydrogen storage of wind power
OMV - hydrogen gas generation and storage
German gas grid
DOE
Windmill Hydrogen Production
NREL partnership with Xcel Energy
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Hydrogen / Methane Gas Engines:

Electricity generated on the farm can be converted to hydrogen and then stored without batteries. Hydrogen is versatile enough that it can be used for all types of applications: tractors, generators, vehicles, rototillers, heating, etc.

By weight, hydrogen is the most energy rich fuel. Unfortunately, volume is a problem unless it is compressed. Instead, many farmers are using ammonia as a fuel because it contains twice the energy of liquid hydrogen.


Energy levels of fuels
Energy level of ammonia

Diesel engines can be converted to hydrogen. Since hydrogen does not easily self ignite under pressure like diesel, it will require glow plugs for ignition or a diesel fuel mixture.


Omnitek - Converting engines to hydrogen
Revolve - Diesel engine conversion
Knowledge Publications - Order Roy McAlister diesel conversion DVD
Tractor runs on ammonia

Most engines that will burn CNG will burn hydrogen. A fuel blend may actually be the easiest way to transition to hydrogen. CNG engines will definitely be the solution offered by big oil. Once there is a CNG distribution system, it is just a small step away from compressed hydrogen distribution and HICE engines.


Collier Technologies - Bi-fuel
Hydrogen / Methane blend
CNG Vehicles

Gasoline engines can be converted to run on hydrogen.


ICE converted to hydrogen
Roy McAlister - convert engines to run on hydrogen
Gasoline conversion

Generating pure hydrogen can be expensive and complex.


University of Miami - hydrogen uses

It is difficult to optimize piston engines for multiple fuels because of pre-ignition and built in inefficiencies. So, new ICE engines are being designed to handle multiple fuels and still be efficient. Listed below are some examples.


LiquidPiston - 75% thermal efficiency
Clean Green Engines - tractors, ammonia

Links to discussions of technical issues.


Hydrogen ICE technical issues
Roy McAlister - Hydrogen Fuel Engine Fundamentals
HICE requirements
OSTI - effect of hydrogen on engines
ADVANTAGES OF HICE
1. Hydrogen / methane fuel was used extensively during WW II, 
   so the technology has actually been around a long time. 
2. Long term renewable that can be generated and stored 
   on the farm.
3. Can run on many fuels instead of only one fuel. 
   Versatility and adaptability may be more important than 
   efficiency in times of instability.
4. No need for constant renewal of membranes and batteries 
   made with rare expensive heavy metals.
   No disposal of toxic batteries into landfills 
   with environmental contamination.
   These rare minerals will not always be available 
   since they require very long supply chains.
5. Combustion engines provide torque that an electric motor 
   has difficulty providing.
6. Hydrogen and methane engines are coming to market. 
7. Operates well in cold and hot climates.
8. Can be used to run electrical generators for when the 
   wind is not blowing and the sun is not shining and 
   the grid is down.
9. Hydrogen ICE not as vulnerable to EMP as an electric vehicle.
10. Does not require pure hydrogen so lends itself to farm / home production.
11. Cleans dirty intake air.

DISADVANTAGES OF HICE
1. Modern engines are more complex and may require advanced 
technology to use a variable hydrogen / methane / diesel blend 
and then transition to higher hydrogen usage.
2. CNG and hydrogen stations are still hard to find.
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Hydrogen Complimentary Technology:

There are many complimentary technologies coming to market. It is difficult to predict which ones will make the greatest contributions to the future of hydrogen technology.

Electrolysis:
H2 Energy Renaissance - electrolysis for hydrogen generation

HHO  - oxyhydrogen:
Top HHO
HHO generation

GEET Fuel Processor:
GEET fuel processor

Radio frequency:
Frequency resonance for hydrogen generation
Radio frequency hydrogen generation.

Water vapor technology:
Hydrogen / water engine

Jet fuel for the US Navy from seawater:
Detailed explanation of the chemistry

The final step is to compress enough hydrogen to fill a tank and what kind of storage tank to use. It is important to use a storage technology that does not use rare, expensive, and toxic minerals.

RE Hydrogen - compression
ANL - Hydrogen storage comparison
Purdue - heat exchanger
Honda Solar Hydrogen Station
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Bike Car:

Perhaps the most efficient form of short distance transport.


Organic Transit bike car
Rhoades Car
Wikipedia
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Solar Energy:

ADVANTAGES
1. Perfect in the desert or outer space where there is lots
   of room not better used for something else.
2. Small isolated agricultural applications often work well.
3. Feed and sell energy back into the grid.
4. Can be used to generate hydrogen.
5. Fills the gap in the summer when wind is low.
6. Works best in an urban environment.
7. True cost of energy is being hidden. Once the true cost
   becomes clear, then this technology will be profitable.

DISADVANTAGES
1. Uses up valuable solar space on a farm.
2. In cold regions, the sun's rays are too indirect to 
   be of much use during winter. 
3. The sun is often clouded when energy is needed the most.
4. Automatic tracking systems are more efficient but are  
   vulnerable to wind damage.
5. Cannot be converted to kinetic energy directly.
6. Converters and controllers must be protected from a solar storm or 
   electro-magnetic burst. Panels are mainly vulnerable to radiation.
7. Best placed in unused areas away from electromagnetic contamination of 
   inhabited areas.
8. Direct solar energy may be better used by a drying barn.
9. Batteries are not very efficient and are expensive.
10. Torque from electric engines is very difficult compared
    to combustion engines.
11. Magnetic pulse could disrupt.

TILTING:
Macs Lab

PANEL INCORPORATED INTO BUILDING:
Dow Powerhouse Roof Tiles

CRYSTAL VS THIN FILM:
Thin film contains rare toxic heavy metals.

Energy Informative
Whole Sale Solar
Electronic Design


REFRIGERATION:

Backwoods Home
Scientific American


AIR CONDITIONING:

SEIA - solar heating cooling
sci-network.eu - solar heating
Wikipedia - solar air conditioning


SOLAR WATER HEATER:

Energy Savers
Build It Solar
Wikipedia

HYDROGEN:

Mike Strizki - Joule Box Portable Hydrogen Power Plant
Mike Strizki Green solar hydrogen Builders
H2 Energy Renaissance - electrolysis for hydrogen generation
DOE
UCSUSA - Solar energy and agriculture
Honda Solar Hydrogen Station
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Animal Fat and Offal as Feedstock For Gasification:

ADVANTAGES
1. Animal fat and waste is easily obtained from abattoirs
   for sale to gasifier facility to make hydrogen / methane 
   gas.
   This cheap readily available source makes it economical.
2. Does not compete as a food source. 
3. Hydrogen / methane fuel used extensively during WW II
   so the technology has been around a long time.

DISADVANTAGES
1. Expensive initial investment.
2. Requires a large volume of cheap feed stock to be profitable.
   Best if many sources; municipal waste, abattoir waste, etc.
3. Complex technology requiring dedicated highly trained
   personnel.
3. Tar buildup can be a problem unless properly setup.

Wikipedia
Penn State - gasification of animal rendering
All Power Labs - example in India
INTECH - hydrogen production with percentages
Biomass Technology Group - evaluation of success factors
University of Oulu Finland - review of technology
ICREPQ - hydrogen generation, temperature
American Hydrogen Association
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Algae Bio-Fuel:

ADVANTAGES
1. Yield of fuel oil is many times higher than any other biological crop.
2. Can also produce hydrogen.
3. By-product can be used as animal feed.
4. Can be used to convert CO2 and/or sewage.
5. Can be grown in areas not suitable for traditional agriculture.

DISADVANTAGES
1. Requires substantial infrastructure investment. 
3. May not be feasible on a small scale, but medium scale for 
   local community consumption might be possible.
4. More suitable in warm high sun light areas.

ALGAE LINKS

Wikipedia Algae Fuel
Oilgae
Algae Biodiesel
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Animal Fat as Diesel Fuel:

ADVANTAGES
1. Animal fat is easily obtained on the farm and does
   not compete as a food source. 
   This makes it economical.
2. Can be used to drive most old style diesel engines.
3. Relatively cheap and easy enough for small farmers.

DISADVANTAGES
1. Moderately technical and dangerous
2. Animal fat diesel has a filter plugging point that is high enough  
   for it to be difficult in diesel engines. Tanks, lines, valves,  
   and pumps must be heated in cold climates. The colder the climate, 
   the more difficult.
3. There is no stampede of B100 engines coming to market.
4. New diesel engines may need to be modified. 

Sites for converting animal fat to biodiesel:

Convert animal fat to fuel with charcoal
Comparison of biodiesel methods
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Remaining Bio-Fuels:

ADVANTAGES
1. Methane from manure is a profitable local alternative.

DISADVANTAGES
1. Manure is better used to increase land fertility.
2. Growing food crops specifically for fuel is often not a good long term 
   solution. It usually uses up agricultural resources which could be used 
   for food. And it increases soil erosion.
3. Ethanol from grain fermentation is low energy.
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